Appendix to Papers 1 to 10

   
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APPENDIX

THE ORIENTAL SCRIPTURES

The sacred books of the Hindu peoples are the oldest and largest collection of scriptural writings extant. They were unknown to the Occident until they were brought to light in 1787 A.D. by an official of the East India Company. These voluminous writings are conventionally subdivided into six groups:

  1. The Vedas.
  2. The Brahmanas.
  3. The Upanishads.
  4. The Mahabharata.
  5. Laws of Manu.
  6. Puranas.

It is not always possible to make this segregation, as, for example, the Forest Books (which close the Brahmanas) in part from the introductory books of the Upanishads.

1. The Vedas. (1000 B.C. or prior) Devotional.

The word Veda is derived from Sanskrit VID—to know. The four Vedas are fundamentally devotional.

a. The Rig Veda—a collection of 1028 lyrical hymns, approximately five times the length of the Hebrew psalms.

b. The Sama Veda—rendition of a majority of the Rig Veda hymns with musical notations. Chants.

c. The Yajur Veda—liturgical writings. Ceremonies.

d. The Atharva Veda—a collection of 730 incantations and other ritualistic formulas designed to work charms, etc.

2. The Brahmanas. (1000-600 B.C.) Ceremonial. See links above

These prose treatises deal with the ritual of sacrifice and its philosophical implications. Much as the Talmud is a rabbinical exposition of the Pentateuch, so the Bramanas are a priestly exposition of the preceding Vedas.

The Aranyakas—the Forest Books—close the Bramanas. Designed to be read in the solitude of the forest by religious isolationists, these books are meditational in character. They contain much priestly philosophy and are the transition link between the ceremonial Bramanas and the philosophical Upanishads.

3. The Upanishads. (600-300 B.C.) Philosophical. See links above

In the course of the profound metaphysical speculations regarding the nature of reality, embraced in the 108 Upanishads, several concepts are developed:

The Brahman—oversoul.

The Atman—the individual soul.

Karma—causality continuity.

Nirvana—ultimate union with the oversoul.

The Upanishads conclude that reality is a monism. They negate the reality of all things excepting the indefinable all-encompassing and unknowable Absolute.

4. The Mahabharata. (500 B.C.) An epic poem. See links above

This is an epic poem of great length containing much of the mythology of the Aryan invaders of India.

The Bhagavad-Gita, of origin perhaps in the first century B.C., was sometime thereafter inserted in the Mahabharata. It is one of the most appealing of all the Hindu scriptures being written in such a manner as to be comprehensible to the average man. It stresses religious activity and devotion. Some scholars have considered the possibility of its indebtedness to the earlier Christian writings, but this hypothesis has been generally rejected.

5. Laws of Manu. (200 B.C.) Legal—ethical. See links above

This collection is legal and ethical in nature, dealing with the following problems.

a. Function of the four castes.

b. Supremacy of the priestly caste.

c. Perpetuation of the priestly caste.

d. Conduct of men in the secular life.

e. Conduct of men in the religious life.

6. The Puranas. (100-1000 A.D.) See links above

This collection of poetry deals with cosmology, mythology, and imparts a vast miscellany of social and religious instruction.

THE TAOIST SCRIPTURES

1. The Tao-Teh-King. 6th Century B.C.

Supposed to have been written by Lao Tze.

Part I - Tao: Deals with nature and functions of the “ultimate cause,” the “cosmic essence,” the “trend of the universe.”

Part II - Teh: Portrays that kind of ethical living which allegiance to Tao brings forth. See link above

2. Works of Chuang Tzu. 3rd-4th Century B.C.

Chuang Tze is the Paul of Taoism.

His works are directed primarily against the factualism and worldliness of Confucianism.

THE KORAN

This is dated in the 7th Century A.D.

Written by Mohammed and purporting to be a transcription of the revelations of the Angel Gabriel.

Arrangement: 114 Chapters (Suras) about one-fourth the length of the Old Testament.

Content: Shows Christian, Jewish, and Zoroastrian influences.

A collection of myths, legends, narratives, legal statutes, ethical precepts, and ceremonial injunctions.

Not new, but a new adaptation of extant teachings to Arabia.

SCRIPTURES OF THE SIKHS

Sikhism, a blend of Islam and Hinduism, was founded in the 15th century A.D. by Nanak. In northwestern India he gathered followers from among both faiths and became their “guru” or master. An apostolic line of succession was maintained for some time. The fifth guru after Nanak collected his writings, added to them, and produced the Holy Bible of the Sikhs—the Granth Sahib.

Teachings of the Granth Sahib:

1. No caste—all are equal before God.

2. Monotheistic.

3. Transmigration and karma are accepted.

4. Ultimate destiny is “absorption into the Eternal Light.”

5. Salvation is a matter of inner attitude rather than external obser

6. Ascetic practices are valueless—only work done out of love for God has merit.

CONFUCIANISM

Total sacred writings consist of nine books—five canonical and four uncanonical.

1. The Canonical “Kings”

The first four books were edited by Confucius; the fifth is largely his own work.

a. The YI King. (The “Canon of Changes”)

To man’s senses the universe seems to be a chaos. This is appearance, but not reality. There is an unceasing creative activity which is constantly arranging an apparent chaos into an orderly and comprehensive universe of harmony.

b. The SHU King. (The “Canon of History”)

Historical-ethical work extolling the virtues of two semi-mythical rulers of antiquity.

c. The SHI King. (The “Canon of Odes”)

Three hundred five odes traversing the whole range of Chinese lyric poetry.

d. The LI KI King. (The “Canon of Rites”)

Portrays an inner law of control and balance as the source of the external harmony of an ideal society arising out of the restrained conduct of its virtuous citizens.

e. CHUN TSIN (“Spring and Autumn”)

These are the “Annals of LU” (700-550 B.C.), the principality in which Confucius was born, and are, in the main, original with Confucius.

His eight fundamental conceptions of peace are here portrayed as:

(1) Heaven is the Lord of the universe and loves all creatures.

(2) Universal love of mankind irrespective of racial differences.

(3) Civilization vs. barbarism is a matter of property and justice.

(4) Reciprocity is fundamental to successful international relations.

(5) Truthfulness is the stability of international relations.

(6) War cannot be justified.

(7) There are divisions of territories, but not of people; all people belong to one family.

(8)The whole world is a great unity.

2. The Uncanonical “Four Books”

Though uncanonical, they have the same standing as the “Kings.” They were written after the death of Confucius by his disciples—immediate and remote.

a. LUN-YU. (Analects of Confucius)

Twenty-five books setting forth Confucius’ teaching, especially with reference to piety.

b. TA-HIO. (The “Great Learning”)

Self-culture in relation to social ethics. Society is presented as an extension of the individual.

c. CHUNG-YUNG. (The “Doctrine of the Mean”)

Confucius’ dominant conception of the “mean”—the middle path between extremes set forth as a cosmic principle of equilibrium or balance.

THE GOLDEN RULE: “Keep the balance true between thyself and thy neighbor, practice the principle of equilibrium.”

d. MENG TZU. (“Mencius”)

Lived 372-289 B.C. Greatest of disciples. Expounded Confucian teachings by use of dialogue form. Continues the exposition of the Doctrine of the Mean with especial emphasis on its relation to government.

3. Teachings of Confucianism

a. The chief end of man is to become a desirable member of society.

b. Belief in God. Confucius recognized a superhuman power that was related to man but said little on this subject.

NAME OF GOD: The term TIEN (Heaven) is used in preference to SHANG-TI (Highest Lord) which carried certain anthropomorphic connotations.

c. Immortality—He was an agnostic. Didn’t accept or deny immortality.

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