Text Standardization

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Urantia Foundation
Standardized Reference Text (SRT)

SRT Committee Considerations and Changes to the Urantia Text


Function of the Standardized Reference Text Committee:
Excerpt from the Standardized Reference Text Committee Draft Report, December 2008:
Since the first edition of The Urantia Book, published in 1955, a number of changes have been made over the years. At this time, Urantia Foundation is on its 19th printing of The Urantia Book and the Urantia Book Fellowship on its 4th printing. Each version has been revised, creating the need to review the changes made, including changes in the:
  1. Text;
  2. Formatting;
  3. Table of contents; and
  4. Referencing system
In the winter of 2007, a joint committee was formed by Urantia Foundation and the Urantia Book Fellowship to undertake this review. This detail oriented committee initially reviewed over 300 suggested changes.
Members of the initial 2007-2009 Standardized Reference Text Committee were:
Chair, Seppo Kanerva, President, Urantia Foundation
Liaison Chair, Marvin Gawryn, Urantia Book Fellowship
Merritt Horn, Urantia Book Fellowship
Nancy Johnson, Urantia Book Fellowship
Marilynn Kulieke, Trustee, Urantia Foundation
Jay Peregrine, Executive Director, Urantia Foundation
Along with correcting the printer errors that had crept into the text, the Committee reviewed most of the 300 recommendations for alteration that had been submitted by students of The Urantia Book over the years. This document records the Committee’s review of those suggestions and queries and also includes the recommendations of the second SRT Committee which was reconvened in 2014.
Three primary reference books have been used by the Committee to assist in these recommendations: The 1913 Webster Unabridged Dictionary (Webster’s), The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) and the Oxford English Dictionary (OED).
The alterations adopted by this Committee have been incorporated into the English Urantia text. In the online text, paragraphs containing variation from the first printing are marked with an asterisk which links to this Committee’s Considerations and Changes to the Original 1955 Urantia Text explanation document.
General:
The electronic text has Paper:Section.paragraph and Page.paragraph annotation added to each indented portion of the standardized text. Each indented portion has an invisible name address associated with it so that it can be linked to from other internet documents. The link format is the file name (file names are "p" for Paper, followed by a 3 digit paper number, 000-196, with suffix ".htm". The file name for Paper 123 is p123.htm). Appended to the file name is the file internal link name address beginning with #U, (#U123_4_5 for Section 4, paragraph 5 of Paper 123). The complete link address would be p123.htm#U123_4_5. The complete HTML code link would be: <a href="p123.htm#U123_4_5">123:4.5</a>
5/2015


SRT Committee
Considerations and Changes to the Original 1955 Urantia Text


Frontmatter:
1955 text Consideration Decision
xiii 1955 text: Foreword (after Part I title, both Titles of the Papers and Contents of the Book pages.)
Review: Foreword (before Part I title, both Titles of the Papers and Contents of the Book pages.)
Adopted: In all printings after the first, the Foreword had been moved before Part I; the text of the Foreword had been moved before the Part I title page in the text of the book. Since the format of the front matter should follow the layout of the text, the Foreword should precede Part I title even though an argument can certainly be made that the Foreword is only the introduction to Part I and not the whole book and that the first edition was laid out incorrectly.
xl 1955 text: 4. The Teachings of Amenomope (Contents of the Book)
Review: 4. The Teachings of Amenemope
Adopted: Amenemope is the correct spelling; his name is spelled correctly in the ten paragraphs where he is mentioned so this was simply a typographical error.
xli 1955 text: 9. Hebrew History Ephriam and Judah (Contents of the Book)
Review: 9. Hebrew History Ephraim and Judah
Adopted: Ephraim is the standard transliteration of the Hebrew name.
xlix 1955 text: 2. The Twenty-eighth Year (A.D. 22) Meeting Gonid and Ganid (Contents of the Book)
Review: 2. The Twenty-eighth Year (A.D. 22) Meeting Gonod and Ganid
Adopted: Gonod is the correct spelling.
lxvi 1955 text: (An exhaustive index of The Urantia Book is published in a separate volume.) (Contents of the Book)
Review: (Remove sentence)
Adopted: Sentence removed.

Foreword and Papers:
1955 text Consideration Decision
0:1.24 (3.11) 1955 text: 5. Absolute perfection in no direction, relative perfection in all other manifestations.
Review: 5. Absolute perfection in no direction, relative perfection in all manifestations.
Adopted: other removed. The original phraseology is incorrect because the reference to other manifestations requires the existence of one or more additional manifestations to which this other is being contrasted. As this particular phase of perfection exists in only one manifestation—relative perfection—there are no additional types which require or permit the use of other in this context. There error occurred when other was inserted into the 1955 text during one of the pre-publication transcriptions by accidentally repeating the pattern of use found immediately before and after this sentence.
0:4.3 (7.1) 1955 text: “Deified reality embraces all of infinite Deity potentials...”
Review: “Deified reality embraces all of infinite Deity potential...”
also...
1955 text: “Deified reality embraces all of infinite Deity potentials...”
Review: “Deified reality embraces all infinite Deity potentials...”
Rejected: See following note for explanation.
Adopted: The 1955 construction, all of infinite Deity potentials, is awkward because all of is used to modify potentials without the latter being qualified by a limiting adjective (e.g., the, these, those). Thus, an error in transcription was apparently made here. Several alternate reconstructions are possible, but all infinite Deity potentials (assuming that of was mistakenly inserted) maintains the all-inclusiveness of the original without implying any limitations and without requiring a change of tone.
0:12.14 (17.3) 1955 text: Chief of the Corps of Superuniverse Personalities
Review: chief of the corps of superuniverse personalities
Rejected: The format of the 1955 text would be appropriate if the phrase in question can be regarded as a title; the suggested revision treats it as a job description. We have only the 1955 text as evidence; without compelling evidence of inappropriate editing, it would seem best to leave it as originally published even if it appears overly formal to the modern reader.
Paper 1 (21.1) 1955 text: PART I The Central and Superuniverse (heading) Informational: Heading removed from the top of Paper 1 in the internet files. Part I is defined by the title page just prior to Paper 1. The duplication is removed in the electronic files.
1:5.1 (27.3) 1955 text: He who planned the ear, shall he not hear?
Review: He who planted the ear, shall he not hear?
Rejected: This item was raised by a translator. No revision has been made here in any edition of the Urantia Book but the translator noted, correctly, that most English translations of the Bible read planted here (Psalms 94:9) and none read planned. Because planted seems quite stilted and obscure, planned would have been an easy typographical error to make. The committee determined, however, that planned does no injustice to the meaning of the passage in the Greek of the Septuagint and reads very well, so there is no reason to change the text to match the common but obscure translation found in most English Bibles.
1:5.16 (29.6) 1955 text: in Him we all live and move
Review: in him we all live and move
Rejected: The committee found that in all items involving the capitalization of pronouns for Deity personalities that have so far been raised through the years, the 1955 text follows correctly and consistently the rules of usage recommended by the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). All items have been returned to the original formats.
2:1.11 (35.4) 1955 text: In Him we live and move
Review: In him we live and move
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
2:2.6 (36.4) 1955 text: God is eternally and infinitely perfect, he cannot personally know imperfection as...
Review: God is eternally and infinitely perfect; he cannot personally know imperfection as...
Rejected: Though an argument can be made for the replacement of the original comma with a semi-colon, the original is not ungrammatical.
3:1.12 (46.4) 1955 text: with the power of choice (concerning Himself)
Review: with the power of choice (concerning himself)
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
7:2.1 (83.4) 1955 text: On Paradise the presence and personal activity of the Original Son is profound, absolute in the spiritual sense.
Review: On Paradise the presence and personal activity of the Original Son are profound, absolute in the spiritual sense.
Informaitonal: It seems that the English text presents an ambiguity: the presence and personal activity of the Original Son is profound. How is it explained that the verb is instead of are" in this particular sentence since it is both the presence and the personal activity who are profound.
11:7.7 (125.1) 1955 text: The relatively quiet zone between the space levels,...
Review: The relatively quiet zones between the space levels,...
Adopted: The plural, found in all editions after 1955, agrees with the verb are and is otherwise consistent with the general sense of the paragraph.
12:4.15 (134.4) 1955 text: But the greatest of all such distortions arises because the vast universes of outer space...
Review:; But the greatest of all such distortions arises because the vast universes of outer space,...
also...
1955 text: next to the domains of the seven superuniverses, seem to be…
Review: next to the domains of the seven superuniverses seem to be...
Adopted: The comma after outer space is required to set off the parenthetical phrase concluded with the subsequent comma.
Rejected: See preceding note. The comma after superuniverses seems out of place without the preceding one suggested at 12:4.15. However, removing it creates a run-on sentence with confusing relationships between the several phrases within the sentence.
12:4.16 (134.5) 1955 text: is a complement or equilibrant of gravity
Review: is a complement or equilibrant of gravity.
No action required: Missing period after gravity.
Minor Error Main Entry: This is one of the minor errors that entered the text when the original plates were first discarded. - Previously restored.
13:0.7 (143.7) 1955 text: The twenty-one Paradise satellites serve many purposes in both central and superuniverses not disclosed in these narratives.
Review: The twenty-one Paradise satellites serve many purposes in both the central and superuniverses not disclosed in these narratives.
Rejected: Newly proposed change. The original does appear somewhat clipped, but the article is not required—especially if the referent is the classes central and supreuniverses rather than any particular central or superuniverses. (It is irrelevant that there is only one central universe and that the class of superuniverses is limited to seven at this time.)
14:0.1 (152.1) 1955 text: This central planetary family is called Havona and is far-distant from the local universe of Nebadon.
Review: This central planetary family is called Havona and is far distant from the local universe of Nebadon.
Rejected: Of the 38 occurrences of far-distant or far distant in the 1955 text, only SRT note for 94:5.6 below is un-hyphenated. Several others have been changed to the open form over the years pursuant to various interpolated rules of usage. However, the Chicago Manual’s guidance is to rely first upon the form supported by an authoritative dictionary and to apply rules of usage only if the question cannot be resolved there. The hyphenated form of far-distant is supported by Webster’s so the simple change of the one open form in the text to the hypenated version makes all instances in the book consistent and correct.
15:3.4 (167.20) 1955 text: If you could look upon the superuniverse of Orvonton from a position far-distant in space, you would immediately recognize the ten major sectors of the seventh galaxy.
Review: If you could look upon the superuniverse of Orvonton from a position far distant in space, you would immediately recognize the ten major sectors of the seventh galaxy.
Rejected: See SRT note for 14:0.1 above.
17:2.6 (200.4) 1955 text: deitization of still other unexpected and undreamed of beings
Review: deitization of still other unexpected and undreamed-of beings
Rejected: This change was apparently made in an attempt to apply a Chicago Manual of Style rule of usage, somewhat as in SRT note 14:0.1 above. While Webster’s indicates that undreamed is “often with ‘of,’” the nature of that combination is not clarified. The Oxford English Dictionary does, however, cite several examples of the combination in both hyphenated and open forms with no distinction in their meaning or usage. Thus, the author could have chosen either form and the only evidence we have is the 1955 text, so its format should be retained.
24:1.11 (266.1) 1955 text: Tertiary Circuit Supervisor No. 572,842 has functioned
Review: Tertiary Circuit Supervisor number 572,842 has functioned
Adopted: The spelled-out version, number, is appropriate in this context and is used in all but one of the similar constructions in the Urantia Book. Because of the orthographic dissimilarity between No. and number, it is necessary to explain how the former could be in the 1955 text if the latter had been intended. It is postulated that either symbol # or the contraction No. was used here and perhaps in many or all similarly constructed phrases in the manuscript—both being common and appropriate handwritten shortcuts—and was either converted to No. or left as No. here and at 136:3.5 at some later point in transcription, at variance with the preferred usage elsewhere in the text and with a reasonable interpretation of the guidance in the Chicago Manual of Style.
26:3.4 (288.4) 1955 text: It must be apparent that some sort of co-ordinating influence would be required, even in perfect Havona, to maintain system and to insure harmony in all the work…
Review: It must be apparent that some sort of co-ordinating influence would be required, even in perfect Havona, to maintain the system and to insure harmony in all the work…
Rejected: Maintain system, though somewhat unusual, is perfectly correct English and is identical in form to the following item in this pair of functions, insure harmony.
28:5.14 (312.1) 1955 text: your mortal career is teamwork.
Review: your mortal career is teamwork [no italics]
No action required: Text error found in the 16th - 17th printings; since restored. The word teamwork was italicized originally; the change is the loss of italics.
28:6.4 (314.3) 1955 text: The Significance of Origins are the living ready-reference genealogies
Review: The Significances of Origins are the living ready-reference genealogies
Adopted: The plural, Significances, is required to agree with the verb are, and its construction is paralleled by the formation of the plural Discerner(s) of Spirits in a similar setting at 28:5.20. The structure of the plural as a whole is confused by the plural form of the last word in the singular of the name.
28:6.8 (315.1) 1955 text: ...the Significance of Origins teach these ascenders...
Review: ...the Significances of Origins teach these ascenders
See SRT note 28:6.4 above.
29:4.23 (326.5) 1955 text: the Seven Supreme Power Directors and the Seven Central Supervisors
Review: the Seven Supreme Power Directors and the Seven Center Supervisors
Adopted: There is no other reference to Seven Central Supervisors in the text but there are multiple references to Seven Center Supervisors (primary description at 29:2.10) who function closely with the Supreme Power Directors.
29:4.34 (328.3) 1955 text: Together with their co-workers, the dissociators
Review: Together with their coworkers, the dissociators
Rejected: Only the hyphenated form is supported by Webster’s, Oxford English Dictionary, and The Chicago Manual’s 9th - 11th editions use co-worker as an explicit example of a general rule regarding certain prefixes. The Chicago Manual of Style’s 11th (1949) reads as follows: “221. Prefixes when joined to roots do not retain the hyphen except in combination with words beginning with their terminal vowel, or with w or y: ...co-operation.... co-worker” The original is therefore correct.
30:3.12 (340.1) 1955 text: ...beings enroute elsewhere who pause...
Review: ...beings en route elsewhere who pause...
Adopted: Although the original may be understandable, it is incorrect French and is not the form that has been adopted into English (according to Webster’s, the Oxford English Dictionary, and the Chicago Manual). A simple dropped space-key explains the original.
31:10.21 (354.7) 1955 text: * * * * *
Review: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Informational: Asterisk separators were used in the first printing at the end of Parts I and II and in several other locations. The asterisks have been replaced with tildes in this standardized HTML version to avoid confusion with the asterisks used as links from the text into this standardization document. 31:10.21, 56:10.22, 119:8.8, 120:3.11, 134:6.13, 144:5.10, 144:5.23, 144:5.35, 144:5.50, 144:5.68, 144:5.81, 196:3.35
32:0.1 (357.1) 1955 text: PART II The Local Universe Informational: Heading removed from the top of Paper 32 in the internet files. Part II is defined by the title page just prior to Paper 32. The duplication is removed in the electronic files.
32:2.13 (360.2) 1955 text: the history and destiny of Urantia
Review: the history and density of Urantia
No action required: A mistake in the 17th printing; since corrected.
34:0.1 (374.1) 1955 text: ...there to be his companion, first, in physical organization and, later, in creation and ministry to the creatures of the newly projected universe
Review: ...there to be his companion, first, in physical organization and, later, in creation of, and ministry to, the creatures of the newly projected universe.
No decision made; recommend against: The inclination is to read the original as ... there to be his companion, first, in physical organization and, later, in creation and in ministry to the creatures of the newly projected universe. If that is a reasonable reading, the question then becomes whether or not, in that construction, the second in can be implied by the author and not stated explicitly. If the sentence concluded with ministry (”...there to be his companion, first, in physical organization and, later, in creation and ministry.”), the second in is not required; so, does the addition of the final prepositional phrase force us to insert the in which could be correctly excluded from the shorter version? If we decide that that something needs to be done, we would probably favor revising the sentence by adding in rather than of and two commas, because less editing is required to fix the phrase—which means that the mistake(s) required to have caused the issue are more likely to have occurred.
34:4.5 (377.9) 1955 text: draws all truth seekers towards Him who is
Review: draws all truth seekers towards him who is
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
34:6.10 (381.4) 1955 text: with power through His spirit in the inner man
Review: with power through his spirit in the inner man
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
35:6.3 (391.1) 1955 text: at the universe headquarters, as he frequently is,
Review: at the universe headquarters as he frequently is,
Rejected: The comma after headquarters is required to enclose, with the following comma, the parenthetical phrase “as he frequently is.”
36:3.6 (400.1) 1955 text: subsequently add any thing new or supplemental
Review: subsequently add anything new or supplemental
Adopted: The compound word is the correct choice in this case. The sentence simply does not read well if, to test an alternative hypothesis, the assumption is made that the two-word format was chosen by the author for emphasis (which, to this editor, is the only discernible rationale for the two-word form).
37:8.3 (413.6) 1955 text: Andovontia is the name of the secondary Universe Circuit Supervisor stationed in our local universe.
Review: Andovontia is the name of the tertiary Universe Circuit Supervisor stationed in our local universe.
Adopted: While both a secondary and a tertiary Circuit Supervisor are assigned to the supervision of a single local universe’s circuits, only the tertiary Circuit Supervisor is stationed within the local universe—the secondary Circuit Supervisor is located on the superuniverse headquarters (See 24:1.5-7 in the text). Therefore, if Andovontia is stationed in our local universe he would be a tertiary Universe Circuit Supervisor. A straightforward explanation for the origin of the error relies on the inferred use of the somewhat unusual but nonetheless valid abbreviations 1ry, 2ry, and 3ry in the manuscript. These abbreviations are common within several disciplines (e.g., grammar/phonetics, medicine, chemistry) and when used in close proximity to each other their meanings are clear even to the general reader, but this instance is not located near similar references, so the likelihood of its use here remains only a probability based on typographical observation, rather than a certainty. This explanation, however, makes an impossible typographical error into common one—a mis-typed character.
38:9.13 (425.5) 1955 text: be recognized for their age-long service [hyphenated at end-of-line]
Review: be recognized for their age-long service [hyphenated; not end-of-line]
No action required: raised by question of resolution of 170:2.1 and previously un-noticed history of this when re-flowed. Original is correct.
40:5.3 (445.4) 1955 text: ...draw the nearest to you in the personality circuit and in the spirit touch of inner communion with the very souls of his mortal sons and daughters.
Review: ...draw the nearest to you in the personality circuit and in the spirit touch of inner communication with the very souls of his mortal sons and daughters.
No action required: Though this may have originally been a simple text error, the modified version is not glaringly fautly and so remained in place through multiple printings.
40:7.2 (450.2) 1955 text: “When you and your Adjusters are finally and forever fused,...then in fact have you become the ascending sons of God.”
Review: “When you and your Adjuster are finally and forever fused,...then in fact have you become the ascending sons of God.”
Rejected: The original, plural form is correct, not only because the referent of every other instance of "you" and “your" in this paragraph is plural (”the ascending Sons of God;" “planetary sons;" “sons of ascension potential," etc.), but more importantly, the grammar of the sentence requires a plural. The change to the text was probably made because of the confusion caused by the enclosed, parenthetical phrase, “when you two are made one,...”
40:8.5 (450.2) 1955 text: Son-fused mortals are not a numerous group, there being less than> one million of them in the superuniverse of Orvonton.
Review: Son-fused mortals are not a numerous group, there being fewer than one million of them in the superuniverse of Orvonton.
Rejected: Would not Strunk and White [page 51] say: “...there being fewer than one million of them....”? Yes, they would. However that is a very unlikely typographical error. And it is consistent with ordinary usage.
41:1.1 (455.5) 1955 text: Within the domain of this Paradise Son of God the Supreme Power Centers and the Master Physical Controllers collaborated with the later appearing Morontia Power...
Review: Within the domain of this Paradise Son of God, the Supreme Power Centers and the Master Physical Controllers collaborated with the later appearing Morontia Power...
Adopted: By indicating the end of the initial prepositional phrase, a comma after Son of God does greatly assist the reader. If present in the original manuscript, a simple dropped keystroke would have produced the 1955 text.
41:3.8 (459.2) 1955 text: While all adolescent suns do not pass through a pulsating stage, at least not visibly, when looking out into space you may observe many of these younger...
Review: While all adolescent suns do not pass through a pulsating stage, at least not visibly, when looking out into space, you may observe many of these younger stars...
Rejected: Though it might be technically correct under some circumstances, adding the comma here would confuse the sentence structure and break it up too much.
41:4.4 (460.1) 1955 text: ...having become sixty thousand times as dense as your sun...
Review: ...having become forty thousand times as dense as your sun...
Adopted: Textual consistency and current scientific estimates of our sun’s density both support the change to forty thousand. The first paragraph of this section states that our sun is about 1.5 times the density of water, or about 0.054 pounds per cubic inch, and 40,000 times this is about 2,160 pounds per cubic inch; the current scientific estimate of the sun’s density is 1.4 times the density of water; 40,000 times that is roughly 2,035 pounds per cubic inch. The likely cause of this error in the 1955 text is that the number in question was written as a numeral in the manuscript (40,000 not forty thousand), and the error was caused by a simple keystroke error in which 6 was mis-keyed for 4, creating 60,000 instead of 40,000. When the text was formatted for printing, the numerals were changed to words, and an error that formerly consisted of one digit was transformed into an incorrect word. The formatting of words and numbers for printing is not a revelatory issue; it is a matter of style, and is covered extensively in the Chicago Manual. (The problem at 43:1.6 in the text appears to have had an identical origin, and 42:5.1 in the text is very closely related.)
41:6.5 (462.3) 1955 text: it is able to complete one million revolutions about the atomic center.
Review: it is able to complete one billion revolutions about the atomic center.
No decision made: Recommend referring to physicist for evaluation. Billion-million possible Urantia Book typo.htm
42:5.1 (474.5) 1955 text: ...ten octaves up are the X rays, followed by the Y rays of radium...
Review: ...ten octaves up are the X rays, followed by the gamma rays of radium...
Adopted: Y rays changed to gamma rays. From external reference to physics, and multiple internal cross-references (see for example 42:5.7 in the text), gamma is clearly intended here. As to the origin of the “Y" in the 1955 text, it is likely that the Greek letter γ (gamma) was mistakenly transposed into “Y" at some point in the preparation of the original edition (probably at the time of the first typing from the original manuscript) either because of a faulty inference from the immediately preceding X, from an unfamiliarity with the Greek alphabet, or simply because there was no better way to represent the character on a standard typewriter. Even though a typesetter would have been able to place the Greek letter γ on the page, the later decision to replace that letter with gamma is clear, reasonable, and consistent with the usage found elsewhere throughout The Urantia Book.
42:6.7 (477.1) 1955 text: ...an electron weighs a little less than 1/2,000th of the smallest atom,...
Review: ...an electron weighs a little more than 1/2,000th of the smallest atom...
also...
1955 text: The positive proton... weighs from two to three thousand times more...
Review: The positive proton... weighs almost two thousand times more...
Adopted: The revised wording is consistent with the paragraph following the subject paragraph ( 42:6.8), where the author states that a proton is eighteen hundred times as heavy as an electron, and is also in general agreement with current scientific opinion which places the ratio at about 1:1836. This item and the related following item are the only changes recommended by the SRT committee that do not have a straightforward typographical explanation.
Adopted: [For historical reference, the first discussion of the relative masses of the structural elements of atoms in the Encyclopaedia Britannica is found in its 11th Edition (1910 / 1911) with revisions in the 12th (1922). The calculation of the relative masses of the electron and the hydrogen atom was undergoing a rapid evolution just prior to the writing of The Urantia Book, the ratio being 1:1700 in 1897; 1:2000 in 1904; and 1:1845 by 1922. This last ratio is also the one quoted in the 1934 Websters.] The revised wording is consistent with the statement in the paragraph following the subject paragraph 42:6.8, in the text where the author states that a proton is “eighteen hundred times as heavy as an electron;" and is also in general agreement with current scientific opinion which places the ratio at about 1:1836. After the committee’s work, this item, plus the closely-related following item, are the only recommended changes that do not have a straightforward typographical explanation. Phraseology mathematically equivalent to the revised wording is necessary to be consistent with the revision at the beginning of the paragraph; both changes being required for the same internal and external reasons.]
42:6.7 (477.1) 1955 text: Each atom is a trifle over 1/100,000,000th of an inch in diameter,
Review: Each atom is a trifle over 1/100,000, 000th of an inch in diameter, [space after last comma in number]
No action required: Unintentional error. Has existed in all Uversa Press printings to the present.
42:7.7 (478.1) 1955 text: the instantaneous disruption of the central proton
Review: the well-nigh instantaneous disruption of the central proton
Rejected: The insertion of well-nigh was perhaps made because the observed deterioration of the known man-made elements with atomic numbers above 100, while extremely rapid, is not instantaneous—if by that description one means that such elements would have half-lives of zero. However:
a) Given the time-frame within which a Mighty Messenger (the author of Paper 42) views reality, the phraseology hardly requires correction even if the sentence is to be understood as just described.
b) It is not self-evident that the “disruption of the central proton” is identical with the nuclear deterioration which we measure in terms of half-lives. The central proton’s disruption might be the immediate cause for the rapid, though not instantaneous, decay which our scientists observe.
c) The procedure described by the paper’s author which leads to the disruption—the insertion of an additional electron into the orbital field of an element that already contains 100 electrons—is itself distinct from the methods whereby transuranium elements are created by our scientists, which involve the insertion of additional particles into the atomic nucleus by various means.
42:10.1 (480.4) 1955 text: The endless sweep of relative cosmic reality from the absoluteness of Paradise monota to the absoluteness of space potency,...
Review: The endless sweep of relative cosmic reality, from the absoluteness of Paradise monota to the absoluteness of space potency,...
Adopted: The comma inserted after cosmic reality, correctly separates the enclosed parenthetical phrase from the absoluteness of Paradise monota.
43:1.6 (486.5) 1955 text: established almost four thousand years ago, immediately after.
Review: established almost forty thousand years ago, immediately after
Adopted: The second edition correction appears to be warranted based on a reference at 119:7.2 in the text: “The public announcement that Michael had selected Urantia as the theater for his final bestowal was made shortly after we learned about the default of Adam and Eve. And thus, for more than thirty-five thousand years, your world occupied a very conspicuous place in the councils of the entire universe.” The default occurred about 37,800 years ago, so almost forty thousand and more than thirty-five thousand would seem to be equally reasonable descriptions. The committee concluded that the problem here is identical in origin to that of 41:4.4: the number in question was written as a numeral in the manuscript (40,000 not forty thousand), and the error was caused by the loss of a zero before the number was formatted into words for printing, leading to four rather than forty being typeset in the first edition.
43:8.2 (494.1) 1955 text: While you are rekeyed each time...
Review: While you are re-keyed each time...
Adopted: The only other occurrence of re-keyed is in hyphenated form at 48:2.21 in the text. Words formed with the “re-" prefix, fall under the same general Chicago Manual of Style rule governing prefixes joined to roots, but this instance is covered by an exception:
“a) When the first vowel of the added word would...suggest mispronunciation, the hyphen is retained.” In this case, the un-hyphenated form appears to indicate that the first syllable is pronounced with a short e, causing the reader to stumble. Insertion of the hyphen resolves the problem.
44:0.1 (497.1) 1955 text: Among the courtesy colonies of the various divisional and universe headquarters worlds, may be found the unique order of composite personalities
Review: Among the courtesy colonies of the various divisional and universe headquarters worlds may be found the unique order of composite personalities
Adopted: Comma removed. This is the only one of the committee’s recommendations that allows the reasonableness of the original but recommends the change because both publishers have long since adopted the change.
44:4.4 (503.4) 1955 text: The ability to translate thought into language in the morontia and spirit spheres is beyond mortal comprehension.
Review: The ability to translate thought into language on the morontia and spirit spheres is beyond mortal comprehension.
Rejected: See reasoning for 51:5.6
45:4.18 (514.8) 1955 text: 16. 1-2-3 the First.
Review: 16. 1-2-3 the first.
Rejected: The name is always capitalized elsewhere in the text.
45:5.6(514.8) 1955 text: Some time they hope to be granted virtually complete autonomy.
Review: Sometime they hope to be granted virtually complete autonomy.
Adopted: The one-word form is correct as the reference is to an indefinite point in time rather than to an indefinite period of time. (See Webster’s) Given the location of this word in the 1955 text—with a line break occurring between Some and time—it is possible that the original error was simply a missing end-of-line hyphen.
46:1.8 (520.4) 1955 text: Jerusem receives faint light from several near-by suns—a sort of brilliant starlight—but it is not dependent on them; worlds like Jerusem are not subject to the vicissitudes of sun disturbances,
Review: Jerusem receives faint light from several near-by suns—a sort of brilliant starlight—but it is not dependent on them, worlds like Jerusem are not subject to the vicissitudes of sun disturbances,
Rejected: The replacement of the original semicolon by a comma was erroneous. The semicolon is the correct choice for joining two independent clauses.
46:2.6 (521.3) 1955 text: ...your sometime arrival on the more remote training spheres of the universe, the superuniverse, and of Havona.
Review: ...your sometime arrival on the more remote training spheres of the universe, the superuniverse, and Havona.
Adopted: and of Havona. changed to and Havona.
46:5.24 (525.6) 1955 text: These exhibits are in charge of the native life of Jerusem, but they are assisted by the ascenders from the various Satania worlds who are tarrying on Jerusem en route to Edentia.
Review: These exhibits are in the charge of the native life of Jerusem, but they are assisted by the ascenders from the various Satania worlds who are tarrying on Jerusem en route to Edentia.
Rejected: This edit was prompted by confusion about the use of an of form of the possessive following charge instead of a possessive noun or pronoun preceding charge. This confusion leads one to imagine that if, in the subject phrase, the native life were to be replaced by a pronoun, in charge of the native life would become in charge of them rather than the intended in their charge. Though this imagined result is nonsensical (exhibits—things—exercising authority over beings), if one feels that the phrase must nevertheless be reconstructed, the only way out of the situation would seem to be the insertion of the into the phrase, leading to the suggested in the charge of the native life. Although this latter construction is more common today, the original would not have appeared awkward for any reader of English before the mid-twentieth century; even now, no reasonable reader could claim a basis for confusion unless the author has used the phrase in an inappropriate setting—when the relationship of the parties involved is not self-evident. The underlying relationship between the parties, here and at the other instances of this construction in the text at: 47:0.4; 73:7.4; 183:4.4; 187:6.2, is clear; so the authors’ choice of words was correct, unambiguous and reasonable. [see Fowler] It should be noted, however, that if the current trends in English usage continue, this now obsolescent phraseology will eventually become obsolete and unnecessarily confusing to most readers. At that point, it will probably be determined that the should be re-inserted into this phrase.
46:5.25 (525.7) 1955 text: it is among the more recent constructions.
Review: it is among the more recent constructions [missing period]
No action required: See SRT note minor error main entry for 12:4.16 above.
47:0.2 (530.2) 1955 text: of the finaliter corps assigned to Satania.
Review: of the finaliter corps assigned to Satania [missing period]
No action required: See minor error main entry at 12:4.16 above.
47:0.4 (530.4) 1955 text: The seven mansion worlds are in charge of the morontia supervisors
Review: The seven mansion worlds are in the charge of the morontia supervisors
Rejected: See SRT note for 46:5.24 above.
48:4.17 (549.4) 1955 text: Those beings who most need the refreshment of periodic reversion to the intellectual status of previous experiences are the higher types of the human species, the morontians, angels, and the Material Sons, together with all similar types of personality.
Review: Those beings who most need the refreshment of periodic reversion to the intellectual status of previous experiences are the higher types of the human species, the morontians, the angels, and the Material Sons, together with all similar types of personality.
Rejected: Though the author could have added the extra the, it is not needed and nothing is gained adding it. There is no reason to force consistency on an author if the expression is already correct-
49:3.3 (563.6) 1955 text: Millions upon millions of meteorites enter the atmosphere of Urantia daily, coming in at the rate of almost two hundred miles a second.
Review: Millions upon millions of meteorites enter the atmosphere of Urantia daily coming in at the rate of almost two hundred miles a second.
No action required: See SRT note minor error main entry for 12:4.16 above. The comma disappeared again in the 15th printing before being restored once more in the 16th.
51:5.6 (586.3) 1955 text: In your world, even in the face of the miscarriage of the ordained plans, great progress has been made since the gift to your peoples of Adam’s life plasm.
Review: On your world, even in the face of the miscarriage of the ordained plans, great progress has been made since the gift to your peoples of Adam’s life plasm.
Adopted: The original In is probably a pattern error from a nearby phrase: “...in one hundred thousand years.....in a million years......in the face of...” Though one knows what the author intends here, this does not appear to be a valid use of in. Acceptable uses of in with world in this context might be “everyone in the world" or “she lives in the world but worships in the spirit” or something similar. The usages are distinguished by the meaning carried by world. If, as in the subject case, the physical sphere is referred to—if planet could be substituted for world—then on makes sense because something can take place or exist on the world (on the planet). However, if any non-physical entirety is meant, then in would be used.
51:6.3 (587.1) 1955 text: And again, pause to consider how the moral authority of even such an ancient center would be reinforced were there situated not far-distant still another and older headquarters of celestial ministry
Review: And again, pause to consider how the moral authority of even such an ancient center would be reinforced were there situated not far distant still another and older headquarters of celestial ministry
Rejected: See note for 14:0.1— all instances standardized on far-distant.
51:7.4 (588.3) 1955 text: spiritual and philosophic domains of activity.
Review: spiritual and philosophic domains of activit y.
No action required: This minor typesetting error appeared only in the 16th and 17th Foundation printings.
52:0.6 (589.6) 1955 text: 5. Post-Bestowal Son Man.
Review: 5. Postbestowal Son Man.
Rejected: The un-hyphenated form is more commonly found in the text, but the original form is appropriate at this location (as a section title) because of its parallelism with the titles of sections two through five and seven of this paper. Only standardization for electronic search might justify the change (which would require the alteration of the title of sections five and six as well).
52:5 (595.6) 1955 text: 5. POST-BESTOWAL SON MAN
Review: 5. POSTBESTOWAL SON MAN
Rejected: See note for 52:0.6
52:6 (597.2) 1955 text: 6. URANTIA’S POST-BESTOWAL AGE
Review: 6. URANTIA’S POSTBESTOWAL AGE
Rejected: See SRT note for 52:0.6 above.
52:7.13 (600.2) 1955 text: and you shall show forth the praises of Him who has called you out of darkness into this marvelous light.
Review: and you shall show forth the praises of him who has called you out of darkness into this marvelous light.
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
52:7.15 (600.4) 1955 text: Nevertheless we, according to His promise,
Review: Nevertheless we, according to his promise,
also...
1955 text: be diligent that you may be found by Him in peace, without spot and blameless
Review: be diligent that you may be found by him in peace, without spot and blameless
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
53:5.2 (605.6) 1955 text: At the time of this rebellion and the two which preceded it there was no absolute and personal sovereign authority in the universe of Nebadon.
Review: At the time of this rebellion and the two which preceded it, there was no absolute and personal sovereign authority in the universe of Nebadon.
Rejected: Although a comma here might assist in phrasing, there is no need to insert one.
53:7.8 (608.4) 1955 text: Of the 681,227 Material Sons lost in Satania
Review: Of the 681,217 Material Sons lost in Satania
Adopted: The change from 681,227 to 681,217 was made because of the original’s conflict with following passage: “Since the inception of the system of Satania, thirteen Planetary Adams have been lost in rebellion and default and 681,204 in the subordinate positions of trust.” 51:1.5 Thus, one of the numbers is in error, but whether the 681,227 should be reduced by ten or the 681,204 should be increased by ten cannot be determined from the text. However, the typing error required to convert a manuscript containing 681,217 to 681,227 is much easier to commit than the error required to change 681,214 to 681,204-the former requiring only that the typist should mistakenly strike a key immediately adjacent to the correct one (2 rather than 1); while the mistake required to type 681,204 when 681,214 is intended, involves striking a key with the other hand at the opposite side of the keyboard (1 intended, 0 struck). The relative locations of the numerals in the standard typesetting case also favored the 2 /1 error over the 0 /1 mistake.
54:2.3 (614.8) 1955 text: In so doing this onetime Sovereign of your system set the temporal purpose of his own will directly athwart the eternal purpose of God’s will as it is revealed in the bestowal of free will upon all personal creatures.
Review: In so doing, this onetime Sovereign of your system set the temporal purpose of his own will directly athwart the eternal purpose of God’s will as it is revealed in the bestowal of free will upon all personal creatures.
Rejected: Though this comma would help the reader in phrasing the sentence, the original is not ungrammatical.
54:6.10 (620.2) 1955 text: At least I was not even when I had thus attained
Review: At least I was not, even when I had thus attained
Rejected: See SRT note for 54:2.3 above.
55:2.8 (624.2) 1955 text: not yet occurred according to my observation.
Review: not yet occurred according to my observation [missing period]
No action required: See SRT note minor error main entry for 12:4.16 above.
55:7.4 (632.3) 1955 text: settledness for one millennium of system time
Review: settledness for one millenium of system time
No action required: The loss of the second n in the sixth printing was probably due to an unnoticed text corruption. The likelihood that this is the source of the problem is increased by the fact that in the first through eleventh editions, the text flow caused millennium to be broken after the first n, with the remaining letters moving to the following line.
55:12.5 (636.6) 1955 text: None of us entertain a satisfactory concept
Review: None of us entertains a satisfactory concept
Rejected: This change was apparently made under the misconception that, because of their semantic similarity, none, not one, and no one share the same syntax. However, both Webster’s and the Oxford English Dictionary attest that, unlike the other forms, none commonly takes a plural verb.
56:7.8 (643.2) 1955 text: We might conjecture that such a plan must prevail in the outer universes; on the other hand the new orders of beings that may sometime inhabit these universes may be able to approach Deity on ultimate levels and by absonite techniques.
Review: We might conjecture that such a plan must prevail in the outer universes; on the other hand, the new orders of beings that may sometime inhabit these universes may be able to approach Deity on ultimate levels and by absonite techniques.
Adopted: The structure of the sentence calls for a comma following on the other hand. In the 1955 text, this was at the end of a line so it could easily have been inadvertently dropped.
Paper 57 (651.1) 1955 text: PART III The History of Urantia Informational: Heading removed from the top of Paper 57 in the internet files. Part III is defined by the title page just prior to Paper 1. The duplication is removed in the electronic files.
57:1.4 (651.6) 1955 text: 900,000,000,000 years ago the Uversa archives testify...
Review: 900,000,000,000 years ago, the Uversa archives testify...
Adopted: The added comma correctly separates the introductory phrase from the body of the sentence (and is consistent with the structure of the other sentences in this list).
57:1.6 (652.2) 1955 text: 875,000,000,000 years ago the enormous Andronover nebula number 876,926 was duly initiated.
Review: ...Andronover nebula number 876,926* was duly initiated.
No action taken: This number is found twice in this paper, see 57:4.3, representing the count of two unrelated sequences. The more likely error is here because the other number has one supporting cross-reference, but there is no basis for recommending any other number at this location. Thus text should be left alone, unless it were deemed wise to note the unresolved issue in some way. The statistical likelihood of these two unrelated numbers being the same is infinitesimal; one of them must be a copying error caused by the transcriber momentarily losing track of location. The second instance is more likely to be the correct one because it is linked to two other numbers: the number of suns produced in the quartan stage and the total number of suns produced. But there is no way of telling what the first number is actually supposed to be, so we cannot offer a correction, we can only confirm the presence of an error.
57:4.3 (654.8) 1955 text: ...during which it gave origin to 876,926 suns.
Review: ...during which it gave origin to 876,926 suns.
No action taken: See 57:1.6. This number is explicit here and is implicit in the calculation of the total number of suns having origin in the Andronover nebula five paragraphs later at 57:4.8: 876,926 + 136,702 = 1,013,628. Thus the number at this location has more support than the other instance, making it more likely that the other is in error, but the evidence is thin in both cases.
57:8.18 (662.5) 1955 text: And all of this did much to facilitate the control of terrestrial energy and to regulate its flow, as is disclosed by the functioning of the magnetic poles.
Review: And all of this did much to facilitate the control of terrestrial energy and to regulate its flow as is disclosed by the functioning of the magnetic poles.
No action required: See SRT note minor error main entry for 12:4.16 above.
58:1.7 (665.2) 1955 text: On a planet where life has a marine origin the ideal conditions for life implantation are provided by a large number of inland seas,
Review: On a planet where life has a marine origin, the ideal conditions for life implantation are provided by a large number of inland seas,
Adopted: Comma added after marine origin.
58:2.1 (665.4) 1955 text: ...the planetary atmosphere filters through to the earth about one two-billionths of the sun’s total light emanation.
Review: ...the planetary atmosphere filters through to the earth about one two-billionth of the sun’s total light emanation.
Adopted: The singular is correct. Compare, for example: one two-hundredth, one ten-thousandth.
58:2.6 (666.3) 1955 text:1200° F
Review: 1200? F
No action required: This was only found in 2001-2008 small format UF printings. Corrected when SRT was adopted.
59:1.1 (673.1) 1955 text: Ameba are typical survivors of this initial stage of animal life,...
Review: Amebas are typical survivors of this initial stage of animal life,...
Adopted: The plural is required here to agree with the predicate ...are typical surviors... A modernized Latin plural form amebae could be used without being a unique choice (see for example Seleucidae at 59:2.12 in the text) but as the authors chose to use the modern form ameba rather than amoeba the committee decided that the English form amebas would be appropriate. Both instances (here and 65:2.4) were spelled ameba in 1955 text. The author’s choice of the modern English form for the singular leads to the use of the English plural Amebas rather than the Latinate Amebae.
59:1.17 (674.3) 1955 text: ...warm the shores of Greenland, making that now ice-mantled continent a veritable tropic Paradise.
Review: ...warm the shores of Greenland, making that now ice-mantled continent a veritable tropic paradise.
Adopted: Paradise should be in the lower case here. See 61:0.2; 73:3.6; and 89:2.3 among others for similar generic lower case instances.
59:2.12 (676.3) 1955 text: The bivalve gastropods...embrace the muscles, clams, oysters, and scallops.
Review: The bivalve gastropods...embrace the mussels, clams, oysters, and scallops.
Adopted: Muscles was an acceptable variant at the time of the writing of the Urantia Book (Webster’s, 1934), and was viewed as the more common spelling in the U.S. by Webster’s in the mid-nineteenth century (1861). There are no other instances of the word with this meaning, so standardization is not required, but the form muscles is now so uncommon for this meaning that the modern form mussels has been adopted.
59:4.18 (680.2) 1955 text: And thus drew to a close one of the longest periods of marine-life evolution, the age of fishes.
Review: And thus drew to a close one of the longest periods of marine-life evolution, the age of fishes.
Adopted: the removed from italics. The subject sentence is the only one of three such constructions on at 59:4.18, 59:5.2 (the age of ferns), and 59:5.6 (the age of frogs) in which the is italicized. See also items at 59:4.3 and 60:0.2.
60:3.8 (689.7) 1955 text: 85,000,000 years ago Bering Strait closed,...
Review: 85,000,000 years ago the Bering Strait closed,...
Adopted: Though the construction without the seems stilted in today’s usage, the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica illustrates that in the early years of the 20th century, it was quite acceptable to use Bering Strait without the article the. The committee determined that even though the usage was correct when The Urantia Book was written, it is now so unfamiliar that the insertion of the is justified here and at 61:0.2 and 61:3.4 in the text.
60:3.20 (691.1) 1955 text: But some time previously there had appeared new types of the herbivorous dinosaurs...
Review: But sometime previously there had appeared new types of the herbivorous dinosaurs...
Adopted: The one-word form is correct as the reference is to an indefinite point in time rather than to an indefinite period of time. (See Webster’s)
61:0.2 (693.2) 1955 text: ...three times Bering Strait land bridge did the same...
Review: ...three times the Bering Strait land bridge did the same...
also...
1955 text: during this sector of time the Panama Isthmus went...
Review: during this sector of time the Panama isthmus went...
Adopted: See SRT note for 60:3.8 above.
Adopted: Issue is inconsistent capitalization of Isthmus/isthmus.
61:3.4 (696.8) 1955 text: ...Bering Strait land bridge was up...
Review: The Bering Strait land bridge was up...
Adopted: See SRT note for 60:3.8 above.
61:3.13 (696.8) 1955 text: Weasels, martins, otters, and raccoons...
Review: Weasels, martens, otters, and raccoons...
Adopted: A single mistaken keystroke could have produced martins from an intended martens. It is also possible, however, that the original form was the author’s choice, being a correct, though less common, variant. (We cannot assert that the author would not use an unusual variant, because coons was used for raccoons only two pages previously. 61:2.7 in the text. However, even if originally correct, this usage of martin is no longer current so the modernization of the spelling is reasonable.
61:7.5 (701.4) 1955 text: reached south to cover most of the State of Iowa.
Review: reached south to cover most of the state of Iowa.
Adopted: Capitalization removed from State
61:7.18 (702.8) 1955 text: ...corresponding to the beginning of the Holocene or postglacial period.
Review: ...corresponding to the beginning of the Holocene or postglacial period.
Adopted: All other geologic periods are italicized; including Pleistocene and Cenozoic on this same page.
65:2.4 (732.2) 1955 text: And from these far-distant times the ameba, the typical single-celled animal organism,
Review: And from these far-distant times the amoeba, the typical single-celled animal organism,
Rejected: Both instances, here and 59:1.1, were spelled ameba in 1955 text. It is a valid, though less common variant. See SRT note for 59:1.1 above.
65:8.5 (740.1) 1955 text: In the cosmic evolutionary laboratories mind is always dominant over matter, and spirit is ever correlated with mind.
Review: In the cosmic evolutionary laboratories, mind is always dominant over matter, and spirit is ever correlated with mind.
Rejected: Extra comma unbalances the sentence.
67:4.6 (758.4) 1955 text: Those beings who fell into sin...were misled by their superiors deceived by their trusted leaders.
Review: Those beings who fell into sin...were misled by their superiors, deceived by their trusted leaders.
No action required: See SRT note minor error main entry for 12:4.16 above.
69:3.9 (774.8) 1955 text: ...the flint flakers and stonemasons;
Review: ...the flint flakers and stone masons;
Adopted: The original stonemasons is clear and is a correct form, but of nine occurrences in the text this is the only instance in which the compound form is found; the spelling has therefore been standardized on the open form.
71:7.2 (806.2) 1955 text: In the ideal state, education continues throughout life, and philosophy sometime becomes the chief pursuit of its citizens.
Review: In the ideal state, education continues throughout life, and philosophy sometimes becomes the chief pursuit of its citizens.
Rejected: The change from sometime to sometimes is, from a typographical standpoint, a minor matter, but the meaning of the sentence is dramatically transformed from a confident prediction about the evolution of the ideal state in the original text to the mere acknowledgment of a possible development in all later editions. To paraphrase the original:
"...philosophy eventually becomes the chief pursuit of the citizens of the ideal state.”
By contrast, all later editions convey the impression that:
" ...philosophy occasionally becomes the chief pursuit of the citizens of the ideal state.”
Given the immediate context in which this statement occurs and the revelators’ broader narrative of the evolution of inhabited worlds toward light and life, and in the absence of compelling evidence that the 1955 text was in error, the committee’s conclusion is that the original wording was the author’s choice.”
73:7.4 (827.3) 1955 text: The instructions given Adam by the Melchizedeks implied that he was to establish racial, continental, and divisional headquarters to be in charge of his immediate sons and daughters,
Review: The instructions given Adam by the Melchizedeks implied that he was to establish racial, continental, and divisional headquarters to be in the charge of his immediate sons and daughters,
also...
1955 text: while he and Eve were to divide their time between these various world capitals as advisers and co-ordinators
Review: while he and Eve were to divide their time among these various world capitals as advisers and co-ordinators
Rejected: see 46:5.24
Rejected: The original construction is correct because between can appropriately be used when more than two objects are related, especially if the relationship is to each object individually rather than in an indeterminate way to the group. Here, the relationship is the division of Adam and Eve’s time between world capitals; it is immaterial that there are more than two capitals involved. The following paraphrase based on the passage may help to distinguish the usages:
"The Adamic children were to live among the evolutionary peoples, administering the affairs of the planetary government from the various world capitals, while Adam and Eve would divide their time between the capitals as advisors and coordinators.”"
74:2.8 (830.3) 1955 text: The dispensation of the Prince has passed, the age of Adam, the third planetary epoch, opens amidst scenes of simple grandeur; and the new rulers of Urantia start their reign under seemingly favorable conditions,
Review: The dispensation of the Prince has passed; the age of Adam, the third planetary epoch, opens amidst scenes of simple grandeur; and the new rulers of Urantia start their reign under seemingly favorable conditions,
Adopted: The initial clause is a complete sentence; a semicolon is the correct way of linking the two parts of the larger sentence.
76:2.3 (848.3) 1955 text: In the days of the first Eden Adam had indeed sought to discourage the offering of animal sacrifice...
Review: In the days of the first Eden, Adam had indeed sought to discourage the offering of animal sacrifice...
Adopted: The comma after Eden appropriately separates the initial adverbial phrase from the remainder of the sentence.
76:5.3 (852.2) 1955 text: Adam knew about the dispensational resurrection which occurred simultaneously with his arrival on the planet, and he believed
Review: He did not know that Michael, the sovereign of this universe was so soon to appear on Urantia;
also...
1955 text: He did not know that Michael, the sovereign of this universe was so soon to appear on Urantia;
No action required: A reported missing comma has not been found in any edition by either publisher.
No action required: Missing comma between universe and was. See SRT note minor error main entry for 12:4.16 above.
77:3.1 1955 text: after much deliberation the plan of Bablot, a descendant of Nod, was indorsed.
Review: after much deliberation the plan of Bablot, a descendant of Nod, was endorsed.
Adopted: Change in spelling. Webster’s says indorsed is more common in American English, while endorsed is more common in British English, though endorse was becoming more common in American English. In light of the obsolescence of the original form, the committee recommends the modern endorsed.
77:3.4 1955 text: Three differing views were propounded as to the purpose of building the tower.
Review: Three differing views were propounded as to the purpose of building the tower:
Adopted: This sentence clearly introduces the following list, so the colon is appropriate. In the 1955 text, this is found at end-of-line, immediately below another line ending with a period, so a typesetting error by inadvertent pattern copying could have easily given rise to the original. An identical construction, properly punctuated is found on the following page at 77:4.2 in the text.
77:7.6 1955 text: And they brought to Him all sorts of sick peoples...
Review: And they brought to Him all sorts of sick people...
Adopted: Neither people nor peoples appear here in the original Greek of this Matthew passage; a more common rendering being “And they brought to him all the sick...” However, if one form or another of people is to be used to place the Matthew passage in this context, peoples, which indicates not multiple individuals but multiple large groups of people—whether tribal, national, or other, does not fit the grammar of the sentence and is clearly not intended here. A mistaken additional keystroke would account for the problem; peoples should be changed to people. See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
77:9.2 (866.1) 1955 text: The seraphim come and go, but the midway creatures remain and will remain, albeit they are nonetheless ministers for being natives of the planet,
Review: The seraphim come and go, but the midway creatures remain and will remain, albeit they are nonetheless ministers for beings native to the planet,
No action taken: What does the sentence intend? Are midwayers native ministers or ministers to the natives?
78:0.1 (868.1) 1955 text: From this region went those men and women who initiated the doings of historic times, and who have so enormously accelerated cultural progress on Urantia.
Review: From this region went those men and women who initiated the doings of historic times and who have so enormously accelerated cultural progress on Urantia.
No action required: See SRT note minor error main entry for 12:4.16 above.
78:2.3 (870.1) 1955 text: was there a civilization in anyway comparable
Review: was there a civilization in any way comparable
Adopted: The two-word form, any way, is the appropriate choice when serving as an adverb only, rather than as an adverbial conjunction, in which case the compound anyway is more common. This latter use, roughly synonymous with at any rate or in any case, is well illustrated by its only occurrence in the papers, at 148:6.4, when Job’s friend, Eliphaz, is quoted as saying: “Anyway, man seems predestined to trouble, and perhaps the Lord is only chastising you for your own good.”
79:3.5 (881.5) 1955 text: ...religious, philosophic, and commerical civilization of the world.
Review: ...religious, philosophic, and commercial civilization of the world.
No action required: simply an error in typesetting.
79:5.6 (883.7) 1955 text: One hundred thousand years ago the decimated tribes of the red race were fighting with their backs to the retreating ice of the last glacier, and when the land passage to the west, over the Bering isthmus, became passable, these tribes were not slow...
Review: One hundred thousand years ago the decimated tribes of the red race were fighting with their backs to the retreating ice of the last glacier, and when the land passage to the West, over the Bering isthmus, became passable, these tribes were not slow...
Adopted: The change from west to east, as found in many printings, is geographically correct but typographically impossible; the committee adopted the alternate West referring to the Western Hemisphere, the word thus indicating a place rather than a direction of travel. There is no question that North America is east of Siberia—that fact being the basis for the 1967 change of west to east. It is difficult to account for the appearance of west in the first printing if east had been in the original manuscript, but if the original had been West—referring to the Western Hemisphere—the only explanation required is a mistakenly un-shifted keystroke. In the Urantia Book, West and East are frequently utilized to designate a generalized geographical location rather than direction, though in all other cases they refer to the western and eastern reaches of Eurasia. Because there is no other instance of West referring to the Western Hemisphere, there is no internal proof of usage, but it is certain that if West had been printed here in the first edition, the meaning would have been obvious, the passage would never have been revised, and the question of this unique usage of West would never have come up.
79:8.3 (887.3) 1955 text: ...following the disruption of Graeco-Roman civilization...
Review: ...following the disruption of Greco-Roman civilization...
Adopted: A change for the purpose of standardization is reasonable, as the original text contained both forms at different locations, so the committee decided upon the more modern form. The origin of the variants in the text may be related to a change in recommended spellings between the 1927 and 1937 editions of the Chicago Manual. (The former specifying Graeco-, the latter, Greco-.) The OED and Webster’s include both forms, but their preferences are split along lines the reader can, no doubt, predict. Changes also made at: 98:4.1, 121:1.8, 121:5.5, 121:5.6, 123:5.12, 166:5.4, 195:0.4, 195:2.5, 195:3.1, 195:3.10
80:2.4 (890.8) 1955 text: ...to the level of the Atlantic Ocean [missing period] No action required: Period missing in first printing restored. This period was at the end of the last line on the page in the original format. There were only two missing periods in the first edition.
80:5.8 (894.1) 1955 text: Central Europe was for sometime controlled by the blue man...
Review: Central Europe was for some time controlled by the blue man...
Adopted: The two-word form is correct as the reference is to an indefinite period of time rather than to an indefinite point in time. (See Webster’s)
80:7.1 (895.1) 1955 text: ...there persisted for sometime a superior civilization...
Review: ...there persisted for some time a superior civilization...
Adopted: As in the previous case at 80:5.8, the two-word form is correct because the reference is to an indefinite period of time; not an indefinite point in time.
82:5.8 (919.4) 1955 text: But it was not possible for out-mating to become prevalent until neighboring groups had learned to live together in relative peace.
Review: But it was not possible for outmating to become prevalent until neighboring groups had learned to live together in relative peace.
Rejected: Probably changed because of a desire to make consistent with outmarriage nearby, but just as in-marriage is different in form from outmarriage here, so out-mating need not look like outmarriage.
83:7.6 (928.7) 1955 text: ...a life-long partnership of self-effacement, compromise...
Review: ...a lifelong partnership of self-effacement, compromise...
Adopted: The committee decided for standardization here and at SRT note for 89:8.1 below, as out of the ten occurrences of lifelong or life-long in the text, only these two were hyphenated. Although Webster’s lists the compound word, differences between Chicago Manual editions may have given rise to the varied spellings. The 1927 and 1937 editions contain the general rule: “Compounds of ‘life’ and ‘world’ require a hyphen: life-history, life-principle (but: lifetime)...” But the 1949 Chicago Manual modifies the rule slightly and lists lifelong as a specific example: “Compounds with ‘god’ and some compounds of ‘life’ require a hyphen: ...life-history, life-line, life-principle, life-story (but: lifeblood, lifelong, lifetime, etc.)"
84:7.7 (940.3) 1955 text: The enhancement of parental instinct. Each generation now tends to...
Review: The enhancement of parental instinct—each generation now tends to...
Adopted: The revision from …instinct. Each… to …instinct—each… makes this section consistent with the others of this series.
85:4.1 (946.8) 1955 text: Baptism became a religious ceremonial in Babylon, and the Creeks practiced the annual ritual bath.
Review: Baptism became a religious ceremonial in Babylon, and the Greeks practiced the annual ritual bath.
Adopted: This passage parallels the first paragraph of Chapter IV in Origin and Evolution of Religion by E. Washburn Hopkins, (1923), which refers to Creeks. The typographical difference between Greeks and Creeks is only one letter—an easy error—however, the flow of references is slightly different, making Creeks seem out of context in the Urantia text. Further, and more importantly, it is inappropriate to modify the text based on an assumed link to another text. If the revalators had stated that they were quoting Hopkins, or if there were no Greeks who practiced the annual ritual bath (which is not true—such a rite was practiced by the adherents of the Eleusinian mysteries, one of the largest cults of the Greek world in the times prior to Jesus’ bestowal), then it could be reasonably asserted that a typographical mistake had been made. In the absence of such a material error or direct assertion by the author of the paper, such a change is beyond the scope of the editor’s range of action. The authors of The Urantia Book often adapted pre-existing texts to their own purposes—modifying them as they deemed appropriate.
86:5.17 (955.5) 1955 text: The children of Badanon developed a belief in two souls,
Review: The children of Badonan developed a belief in two souls,
Adopted: Badonan is the correct spelling; Badanon was, no doubt, the result of an inadvertent key transposition.
87:3.3 (960.7) 1955 text: The custom of adopting children was to make sure that some one would provide offerings after death...
Review: The custom of adopting children was to make sure that someone would provide offerings after death...
Adopted: The two-word form is appropriate when referring to some one member of a particular group, as “Some one of you will go with me...” The compound form is used when the group of which the ‘one’ is a member is not specified. Fowler (1926) clarifies the differentiation by stating that ’someone’ should be used when ’somebody’ could be substituted for it; ’some one’ should be used in all other cases.
87:5.5 (962.6) 1955 text: The whole phallic cult grew up as a defense against evil eye.
Review: The whole phallic cult grew up as a defense against the evil eye.
Adopted: The phrase evil eye without an article seems extremely stilted, while such forms may have been used somewhere by some author, the committee could find no instances of such usage—even in texts of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries—and certainly could not find a reason not to amend the text here to conform with normal practice.
88:6.7 (972.7) 1955 text: And intelligent human beings still believe in good luck, evil eye, and astrology.
Review: And intelligent human beings still believe in good luck, the evil eye, and astrology.
Adopted: See SRT note for 87:5.5. above.
89:3.1 (976.3) 1955 text: Soon it became the custom to forego many forms of physical pleasure, especially of a sexual nature.
Review: Soon it became the custom to forgo many forms of physical pleasure, especially of a sexual nature.
Adopted: The revised forgo is etymologically preferable and so has been adopted by the committee. However, it should be noted that forego was not an error per se, it has been in use for over 400 years and leads to no confusion. [F]orego/foregoing is also found at three other locations in the text, while forgo was absent altogether. Though forego appears (for the first time for either form) as the preference in the 11th edition (1949) of the Chicago Manual, the modern trend has been toward the adopted revised form.
89:4.9 (978.6) 1955 text: ...5,740,352 sacks of coin...
Review: ...5,740,352 sacks of corn...
Adopted: Early Egyptians developed a system of exchange of gold and silver rings, but true coinage was not introduced until the period of Persian domination (525-415 BCE), during which the gold daric and silver siglos of Darius I (reigned from 521-485 BCE) would have been used for some transactions. Coins were not actually minted in Egypt until ~ 404-343 BCE during the brief period of independence between the 1st Persian period and the reconquest by Artaxerxes III (342-336 BCE), when silver imitation Athenian Owls were minted. Coins were regularly minted in Egypt during the Ptolemaic (283-30 BCE) and subsequent Roman periods. The Harris Papyrus I commemorates the reign of Rameses III, and was commissioned by his son Rameses IV at the former’s death in 1172 BCE. The list of gifts to the Gods in the Urantia Book at 89:4.9, excerpted from this papyrus, thus predates the earliest significant presence of coins in Egypt by 650-750 years. Therefore, this reference is a simple typo made when quoting a known source; but regardless of quantities, the 1955 text cannot be correct—it is erroneous on its face. This is the key difference between this item and the Greek/Creek item above. This precise list, including the “coin" typo, is found in William Graham Sumner/Albert G. Keller, The Science of Socety, Yale, 1927. This can only refer to sacks of grain or corn. The list of gifts to the gods in the Urantia Book here is excerpted from the Harris Papyrus I which commemorates the reign of Ramses III, and was commissioned by his son Ramses IV at the former’s death in 1172 BCE. The entries totalling 5,740,352 in the papyrus clearly refer to sacks of grain, or as sometimes translated, sacks of corn (where corn is used in its traditional sense as a generic word for various grains). This error results from mistakenly typing coin when corn was intended. Interestingly, this typographical error also appears in The Science of Society by Sumner & Keller (1927), the apparent immediate source for this passage. This error is not found in the English translation of the source referenced by Sumner & Keller: Adolf Erman’s Life in Ancient Egypt (1886).
89:8.1 (982.5) 1955 text: ...with dedication to life-long virginity...
Review: ...with dedication to lifelong virginity...
Adopted: Lifelong. See SRT note for 83:7.6 above.
90:2.9 (988.5) 1955 text: ...the Shawnee Teuskwatawa, who predicted the eclipse of the sun in 1808 and denounced the vices of the white man.
Review: ...the Shawnee Tenskwatawa, who predicted the eclipse of the sun in 1808 and denounced the vices of the white man.
also...
1955 text: the Shawnee Teuskwatawa, who predicted the eclipse of the sun in 1808 and denounced the vices of the white man.
Review: the Shawnee Tenskwatawa, who predicted the eclipse of the sun in 1806 and denounced the vices of the white man.
Adopted: Tenskwatawa is the standard transliteration for the Shawnee prophet’s name; the spelling in the first edition may have been caused by a mistaken keystroke or may have been the result of an error in reading the original manuscript. (Regarding the latter possibility, see the note for 195:3.1).
Adopted: Since nothing in the text is dependent on the 1808 date, nor linked to it in any way, and since the change from the incorrect to the correct date—1806—is just one digit/keystroke, this is no more significant a change from a technical standpoint than the correction of a spelling mistake—except that so many people have spent so much time making so much over this obvious mistake in the text. The date in the text here has been changed because the incident actually occurred in 1806. Since nothing in the text is dependent on, or linked to, the original 1808 date, and since the change from the incorrect to the correct date is just one digit/keystroke, this is technically identical to a number of other corrected items.
92:7.7 (1013.2) 1955 text: 1. Level values—loyalties.
Review: 1. Level of values—loyalties.
Adopted: Level values has no discernible meaning in this context; of must have been omitted at some point in the process of preparing the text for publication. The phrase Level of values is not only meaningful, but consistent with the context, and is also a parallel construction to the other items in this series: “Depth of meanings"; “Consecration intensity" (i.e., ‘Intensity of consecration’); and “progress of the personality.”
93:5.5 (1019.2) 1955 text: Come to Salem, where you shall hear our teachings of the truth of the eternal Creator, and in the enlightened offspring of you two brothers shall all the world be blessed
Review: Come to Salem, where you shall hear our teachings of the truth of the eternal Creator, and in the enlightened offspring of your two brothers shall all the world be blessed
Rejected: Melchizedek is speaking to Abraham and Nahor.
93:5.8 (1019.5) 1955 text: It required great determination for Abraham to forego the honors...
Review: It required great determination for Abraham to forgo the honors...
Adopted: See SRT note for 89:3.1 above.
94:1.3 (1027.4) 1955 text: a pantheon under the triune leadership of Dyaus pitar,
Review: a pantheon under the triune leadership of Dyaus Pitar,
Rejected: Suggested format maybe more common but original is in use.
94:4.6 (1031.7) 1955 text: Many of the ancient gods of the Aryans, such as Agni, Indra, Soma, have persisted as secondary to the three members of the Trimurti.
Review: Many of the ancient gods of the Aryans, such as Agni, Indra, and Soma, have persisted as secondary to the three members of the Trimurti.
Adopted: The role of the conjunction and between the last two elements of a series is to give the reader an indication that the series is complete. Without the final conjunction, the reader normally assumes that what follows is part of the series. In this case, lacking the conjunction, the reader will find him- or herself inserting the missing and in order to make sense of the sentence. This is not a unique construction; sentences with the same missing and are sometimes encountered in other works, and they create the same problem for the reader.
94:5.6 (1033.1) 1955 text: In Japan this proto-Taoism was known as Shinto, and in this country, far distant from Salem of Palestine,...
Review: In Japan this proto-Taoism was known as Shinto, and in this country, far-distant from Salem of Palestine,...
Adopted: This was the only instance of the un-hyphenated form far distant in the 1955 text. The decision to hyphenate and thereby standardize usage in the Urantia Book is the least complex resolution to the perceived problem of variant forms of the term and is in agreement with Webster’s of 1934.
94:6.3 (1033.6) 1955 text: He taught that "man’s eternal destiny was everlasting union with Tao, Supreme God and Universal King.”
Review: He taught that man’s eternal destiny was “everlasting union with Tao, Supreme God and Universal King.”
Adopted: The original phraseology asserts that Lao-Tse himself was speaking in the past tense as in “man’s destiny used to be everlasting union...” This would be a very strange construction and could not have been the intention either of Lao-Tse nor of the paper’s author. The relocation of the opening quotation mark resolves the difficulty and relies on a straightforward typing or typesetting error.
95:1.3 (1042.4) 1955 text: Such teaching gained the ascendency for more than one hundred and fifty years...
Review: Such teaching gained the ascendancy for more than one hundred and fifty years...
Adopted: [A]scendancy is first choice of Webster’s though both forms are in about equal usage, but ascendant is definitely preferred above asendent... Out of 5 instances, ascendancy is found 3 times, ascendency twice. The committee decided to standardize on ascendancy.
95:2.3 (1044.2) 1955 text: more particularly did each of the two-score separate tribes
Review: more particularly did each of the twoscore separate tribes
Rejected: The replacement of the original two-score with the compound twoscore is without support in Webster’s, the Oxford English Dictionary, or the Chicago Manual. The closing of compound words is usually a natural development of broad, frequent usage and indicates that a new meaning has been established for the union of the two elements. Though it is perfectly understandable, twoscore fails that test.
95:5.11 (1048.5) 1955 text: Ikhnaton had associated the flaming disc of the heavens with the creator God
Review: Ikhnaton had associated the flaming disk of the heavens with the creator God
Rejected: Standardization is not required and the different form might be intentional to associate it with this historical usage. Disc and disk are each found once in the 1955 text–the other is at 57:1.7 and refers to the “revolutionary disk" of the Andronover nebula. According to Webster’s and the Oxford English Dictionary, disc is valid alternate to disk used often in many scientific settings, and disc is not-infrequently used in academic writings on Ikhnaton.
96:3.1 (1055.4) 1955 text: ...from Egypt to the Arabian desert under his leadership...
Review: ...from Egypt to the Arabian Desert under his leadership...
Adopted: The formatting of geographic names is covered by the Chicago Manual; the correct form is Arabian Desert. The several occurrences of this name have been standardized on the capitalized form.
96:3.4 (1056.1) 1955 text: leave the valley of the Nile for the Arabian Desert.
Review: leave the valley of the Nile for the Arabian desert.
Rejected: See note for 96:3.1.
96:4.4 (1056.6) 1955 text: ...received the ten commandments which Moses promulgated...
Review: ...received the Ten Commandments which Moses promulgated...
Rejected: The capitalized form is the standard approved by the Chicago Manual. However, of the six occurrences of this designation in the text, only one was capitalized in the first edition. Because it is statistically unlikely that five of six would be random errors, the committee decided to leave all instances as found in the original text so as to avoid the possibility of masking the intentions of the authors. A possible explanation for the original is that the lowercased version was the choice of the several authors because it reflected the evolutionary relationship of Moses’ ten commandments to the earlier seven commandments of Melchizedek ( 93:4.6-13), the seven commands of Eden ( 74:7.5-6), and the seven commands of Dalamatia ( 66:7.8-15) [which are referenced as the seven commandments of Dalamatia at 74:7.6]. The single capitalized instance in the 1955 text is probably the result of a stylistic edit to conform with the usage prescribed by the Chicago Manual. See also note at 137:2.9.
96:4.6 (1057.2) 1955 text: But none the less he sought to enlarge their concept...
Review: But nonetheless he sought to enlarge their concept...
Adopted: The difference between none the less and nonetheless as followed throughout the 1955 text—except at this point—is thus: None the less is used where the meaning is a comparative roughly equivalent to no less, and the latter could be substituted without a change in meaning. Nonetheless is interchangeable with nevertheless and is used when the meaning approximates "even so.”
97:5.6 (1067.3) 1955 text: “...He has shown me, O man, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God."
Review: "...He has shown me, O man, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God?"
Rejected: This passage is usually translated as a question though it can be formulated as a declarative statement. The committee decided to leave the original, though this may require further attention. This directly quotes ASV/RV; the ? is found there. Aside from a couple of modernizations, this quote is from and is punctuated as the RV.
97:9.23 (1074.5) 1955 text: The fall of Assyria and the ascendency of Egypt brought deliverance...
Review: The fall of Assyria and the ascendancy of Egypt brought deliverance...
Adopted: See SRT note for 95:1.3 above.
98:4.1 (1081.4) 1955 text: The majority of people in the Graeco-Roman world...
Review: The majority of people in the Greco-Roman world...
Adopted: See SRT note for 79:8.3 above.
100:4.4 (1098.1) 1955 text: If some one irritates you, causes feelings of resentment,...
Review: If someone irritates you, causes feelings of resentment,...
Adopted: See note for 87:3.3
100:4.5 (1098.2) 1955 text: Only in the second sketch you are favored with a widened horizon.
Review: Only, in the second sketch you are favored with a widened horizon.
Adopted: The comma after Only is required to convey the intended meaning, which approximates “however, in the second sketch you are favored...” as opposed to the meaning without the comma which would be “It is only in the the second sketch that you are favored...” Also note that for the sentence to work without the comma, ...sketch you are... would have to be inverted to ...sketch are you... in order to be grammatically correct.
101:3.5 (1108.4) 1955 text: adverse ani / malistic tendencies. [missing hyphen at end of line]
Review: adverse ani-/ malistic tendencies. [hyphen inserted]
No action required: Text flow modified in 16th printing. This is an acceptable parsing of the word.
102:3.5 (1122.1) 1955 text: ...to the consciousness of true reality; while the co-ordination...
Review: ...to the consciousness of true reality; while the co-ordination...
Adopted: semi-colon italicized. The first rule of punctuation in the first edition of the Chicago Manual was “All punctuation marks should be printed in the same type as the word or letter immediately preceding them.” (Exceptions noted for parentheses and brackets..) ... This continues to be the rule in later editions—with several clarifications and expansions subsequently added.
102:3.11 (1122.7) 1955 text: Science indicates Deity as a fact; philosophy presents... [semi-colon not italicized]
Review: Science indicates Deity as a fact; philosophy presents...[semi-colon italicized]
Adopted: Semi-colon italicized. See SRT note for 102:3.5 above.
102:8.4 (1127.8) 1955 text: Ethics is the eternal social or racial mirror which faithfully reflects...
Review: Ethics is the external social or racial mirror which faithfully reflects...
Adopted: While it may be possible to extract some meaning from the original wording, changing eternal to external on the basis of an assumed dropped keystroke in the original, suddenly makes the sentence not only clear in meaning but also reveals a contrastive point which is completely absent from the original. (This also resolves the otherwise completely opaque “Ethics is the eternal...racial mirror...”)
104:1.12 (1144.9) 1955 text: The Christian concept of the Trinity, which began to gain recognition near the close of the first century after Christ, was comprised of the Universal Father,...
Review: The Christian concept of the Trinity, which began to gain recognition near the close of the first century after Christ, was composed of the Universal Father,...
Rejected: Definition 3a in Webster’s: “To consist or be made up of; as, his family comprises five sons.” The form comprised of is a modern variant first appearing in 1874 which is gaining wider acceptance though composed of is the historically correct construction. (Fowler 1996 and with reference to Fowler 1931) The original being a correct form, and clear in meaning, the committee found no reason to change it.
104:3.16 (1147.8) 1955 text: Thus does the Paradise Trinity stand unique among absolute relationships; there are several existential triunities but only one existential Trinity.
Review: Thus does the Paradise Trinity stand unique among absolute relationships, there are several existential triunities but only one existential Trinity.
Rejected: The original punctuation was correct, as the semi-colon is normally required to join two independent clauses.
105:3.8 (1156.5) 1955 text: Unifier of the deified and the undeified; corelater of the absolute...
Review: Unifier of the deified and the undeified; correlator of the absolute...
Adopted: Although it is possible that the original word (which is not found in either Webster’s or the OED) was a coined extension of corelation and corelative (both of which are found), it is not readily apparent how corelater would differ in meaning from correlator(s), the now standard form, which is found five times elsewhere in the text. The more likely situation is that two separate typographical errors were made when this word was set. The first was a dropped keystroke error at the end of a line of type; the second was an incorrect keystroke error, substituting e for o. This doubly misspelled word would still be difficult to catch in proofing because it would sound the same if read out loud, and interestingly enough, if it looked odd to a proofreader and consequently led him or her to consult the dictionary, the spelling could neither be confirmed nor denied by either Webster’s or the OED—neither dictionary contained correlator or corelater—and without an electronically searchable text, it is unlikely that the evidence of the otherwise unanimous usage within the revelation itself could have been brought to bear on the problem.
105:3.9 (1156.6) 1955 text: ...is invalidated by the eternity co-existence of the Son,...
Review: ...is invalidated by the eternity coexistence of the Son,...
Adopted: The hyphenated form is not found elsewhere in the text and is not supported by the guidelines of the Chicago Manual or the reference dictionaries. Coexist [no hyphen] and its various derivative forms are found twenty times throughout the Papers.
106:5.1 (1167.2) 1955 text: ...the union of God the Supreme, God the Ultimate, and the Unrevealed Consummator of Universe Destiny.
Review: ...the union of God the Supreme, God the Ultimate, and the unrevealed Consummator of Universe Destiny.
Adopted: The lowercase version appears to be correct because unrevealed does not seem to be part of the name but is solely descriptive (the title being found in several places without unrevealed preceding it). In the one other case in which unrevealed is found in conjunction with Consummator of Universe Destiny, it is not capitalized in the text. 0:12.7 [Unrevealed is found in one other location as a capitalized component of a title—The “Unrevealed Creative Agencies of the Ancients of Days" 30:1.108 so such a format is possible.]
107:6.2 (1182.4) 1955 text:The Adjuster is man’s eternity possibility; man is the Adjuster’s personality possibility. Informational: The original text does appear unusual at first glance because one expects a noun like possibility to be modified by an adjective such as eternal; not by another noun. In this situation however, eternity is not serving as an adjective, rather the two nouns together form a single concept or nominal group, identical in structure to the group which ends the subject sentence: ...man is the Adjuster’s personality possibility.
108:3.10 (1190.1) 1955 text: but we are not consciously certain of thus function- / ing
Review: but we are not consciously certain of thus function / ing [missing hyphen at line break]
No action required: See SRT note minor error main entry for 12:4.16 above.
109:7.2 (1201.3) 1955 text: Personalized Thought Adjusters are the untrammelled...
Review: Personalized Thought Adjusters are the untrammeled...
Adopted: Although both variants are acceptable, untrammeled is the unanimous usage elsewhere in the text (four other locations) and is preferred by the Chicago Manual.
110:3.4 (1206.2) 1955 text: ...wholly compatible with a light-hearted and joyous life...
Review: ...wholly compatible with a lighthearted and joyous life...
Adopted: All other occurrences in the text follow the compound form, lighthearted, with the possible exception of one which is hyphenated at a line break. The committee decided that standardization is appropriate here.
110:5.2 (1208.1) 1955 text: ...disconnected parade of the un-co-ordinated sleeping mind...
Review: ...disconnected parade of the unco-ordinated sleeping mind...
Rejected: The original, fully hyphenated form is found in Webster’s, and the fully closed form is found in the OED, but the hybrid of the 10th, 11th and 15th editions is not found anywhere. The modified spelling also violates the general hyphenation guidelines of the Chicago Manual regarding the avoidance of forms which might cause the reader to stumble over either pronunciation or meaning.
111:0.4 (1215.4) 1955 text: ...the ka and the ba; the soul... [semi-colon not italicized]
Review: ...the ka and the ba; the soul... [semi-colon italicized]
Adopted: See SRT note for 102:3.5 above. The semi-colon should be italicized.
111:1.6 (1217.1) 1955 text: Mind is the cosmic instrument on which the human will can play the discords of destruction, or upon which this same human will can bring forth the exquisite melodies of God identification and consequent eternal survival.
Review: Mind is the cosmic instrument on which the human will can play the discords of destruction, or upon which this same human will can bring forth the exquisite melodies of God-identification and consequent eternal survival.
Rejected: The hypen is not required to clarify the unity of this concept. See 118:7.5 for parallel item.
112:1.7 (1226.11) 1955 text: Vertical depth embraces the organismal drives and attitudes [only Vertical in italics]
Review: Vertical depth embraces the organismal drives and attitudes [Vertical depth italicized]
Adopted: Vertical and depth should both be italicized as together they form the substantive paralleled by the other items in the context, Breadth and Length— both of which are italicized.
114:3.2 (1252.6) 1955 text: ...while the united midwayers, since the departure of 1-2-3 the first...
Review: ...while the United Midwayers, since the departure of 1-2-3 the first...
Adopted: United Midwayers is the usual form of the term.
114:7.1 (1257.1) 1955 text: It is the general practice in the conduct of the affairs of the ascension plans to begin this liaison utilization of mortal will creatures immediately they are competent and trustworthy to assume such responsibilities.
Review: It is the general practice in the conduct of the affairs of the ascension plans to begin this liaison utilization of mortal will creatures immediately when they are competent and trustworthy to assume such responsibilities.
Rejected: It seems that there is a word(s) missing during the transition immediately they. For example, if it read “immediately as they become competent...” or “immediately when they are competent...” it would be less awkward, without changing the meaning. This use of ‘immediately’ does seem a bit stilted, but it’s a valid construction with a history going back almost 300 years.  With things like this, if the grammar was valid at the time of the writing of The Urantia Book, we only considered modernizing the phraseology if the usage was really jarring (this one rates pretty high up on that scale) and if we weren’t just simplifying the language for modern readers—but this is bound to be a gray area, and will frankly be a moving target as time goes by.
117:0.2 (1278.2) 1955 text: If all grand universers should ever relatively achieve the full living of the will of God, then would the time-space creations be settled in light and life,
Review: If all grand universes should ever relatively achieve the full living of the will of God, then would the time-space creations be settled in light and life,
No action required: Error found in the 15th - 17th printings.
117:6.1 (1287.6) 1955 text: Unrecog nizable in his mystery, though distant, yet is he near
Review: Unrecog-nizable in his mystery, though distant, yet is he near
No action required: This hyphen, the last character on the page in the original format, reported missing in some books, was simply a very light imprint in printings 3-5.
117:7.4 (1291.8) 1955 text: of the Qualified Vicegerents of the Ultimate [apparently missing period]
Review: of the Qualified Vicegerents of the Ultimate.
No action required: This period was missing in many copies of the 1955 text but it very faintly appears in others, apparently being worn down in the course of the printing. However, by the second printing—from the same plates—the period had been completely worn off. For some reason, it was not restored when new plates were created for the 3rd printing and remained absent until finally corrected in the 6th printing. See SRT note for 80:2.4 above.
118:6.2 (1299.5) 1955 text: And none of this philosophy does any violence to the freewillness of the myriads of...
Review: And none of this philosophy does any violence to the free-willness of the myriads of...
Adopted: Free-willness is found at four other locations in the text and all in instances it refers to an attribute or characteristic of a being or beings. Freewill and free will each occur numerous times—the former as an adjective (modifying such words as choice, action, or personality), while the two-word form is used when free modifies will itself (i.e. when will is under discussion). In light of these consistent usages, conforming this variant is appropriate as the original was probably the result of a dropped hyphen.
118:6.8 (1300.4) 1955 text: But to accept the fallacy of omnificence is to embrace the colossal error of Pantheism.
Review: But to accept the fallacy of omnificence is to embrace the colossal error of pantheism.
Adopted: Though religions and even philosophical schools are normally capitalized, e.g. Platonism, Stoicism, Deism, pantheism is more of a philosophical concept than an organized system of ideas and so is normally not capitalized—either currently or in writings contemporaneous with The Urantia Book.
118:7.5 (1301.2) 1955 text: Iniquity in the finite domains reveals the transient reality of all God-unidentified selfhood. Only as a creature becomes God identified, does he become truly real in the universes.
Review: Iniquity in the finite domains reveals the transient reality of all God-unidentified selfhood. Only as a creature becomes God-identified, does he become truly real in the universes.
Rejected: God identified here, and its only related form, God identification at 111:1.6 are both open (separate words) in the 1955 text, and are clear because they represent known, common concepts. God-unidentified in the prior sentence more appropriately requires the linking hyphen as it is not a commonly found concept. The insertion of the hyphen may have been an attempt to harmonize these two forms, but it is unnecessary to do so.
119:7.6 (1317.2) 1955 text: These men of God visited the newborn child in the manger.
Review: These men of God visited the newborn child.
Rejected: in the manger, which was removed at the second printing is restored. Presumably, this change was made because the original seems to be inconsistent with the narrative of Jesus’ birth in 122:8, which states that three wise men from the east visited Jesus when he was almost three weeks old—about the time the family left the inn and over two weeks after they had moved out of the stable. However, it is certainly possible that Joseph and Mary might have taken the manger with them up to the room in the inn in order to continue to have a cradle for Jesus. The need for a cradle would have been no less in the room than in the stable, and if the manger was portable, as small feed-boxes often are, moving it along with the family seems quite reasonable. Regardless of any explanation which might be offered in support of the original (such as the use of a small portable manger), the change cannot be justified on typographical grounds.
119:8.8 (1319.1) 1955 text: And your record tells the truth when it says that this same Jesus has promised some time to return...
Review: And your record tells the truth when it says that this same Jesus has promised sometime to return...
Adopted: Sometime is correct. See SRT note for 60:3.20 above.
119:8.9(1319.2) 1955 text: [This paper...in the year A.D. 1935 of Urantia time.]
Review: This paper...in the year A.D. 1935 of Urantia time.
Adopted: Removal of the brackets makes the formatting here at the end of Part III consistent with the credits at the ends of Parts I and II.
Part IV 1955 text: This group of papers was sponsored by a commission of twelve Urantia Midwayers acting under the supervision of a Melchizedek Revelatory Director. The basis of this narrative was supplied by a secondary Midwayer...
Review: This group of papers was sponsored by a commission of twelve Urantia midwayers acting under the supervision of a Melchizedek revelatory director. The basis of this narrative was supplied by a secondary midwayer...
Adopted: Capitalization removed. All three of these changes reflect the adoption of a “down" style for the descriptive information on the title page for Part IV. This is a matter of format only, but the original style was viewed as being more formal than required.
120:0.1 (1323.1) 1955 text: PART IV The Life and Teachings of Jesus Informational Heading removed from the top of Paper 120 in the internet files. Part IV is defined by the title page just prior to Paper 120. The duplication is removed from the electronic files.
120:1.1 (1323.1) 1955 text: The basis of this narrative was supplied by a secondary Midwayer
Review: The basis of this narrative was supplied by a secondary midwayer
Adopted: See SRT note for Part IV above.
121:7.3 (1340.1) 1955 text: ...one who did not hestitate to clash with dogmas...
Review: ...one who did not hesitate to clash with dogmas...
Adopted: Simple typesetting mistake.
122:4.1 (1347.3) 1955 text: Joseph, I appear by command of Him who now reigns on high
Review: Joseph, I appear by command of him who now reigns on high
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
123:2.3 (1357.7) 1955 text: ...one month before his fifth birthday anniversay...
Review: ...one month before his fifth birthday anniversary...
Adopted: simple typesetting mistake.
123:5.12 (1363.5) 1955 text: Far to the east they could discern the Jordan valley and, far beyond, the rocky hills of Moab. Also to the south and the east...
Review: ...Far to the east they could discern the Jordan valley and far beyond lay the rocky hills of Moab. Also to the south and the east...
Rejected:: The context for this sentence is the panoramic view from atop the Nazareth hill: Jesus and his father are standing on top of the hill and are moving their gaze from Mt. Carmel in the northwest around an arc to the north, east, south and west. Mt. Hermon is to their north, and from springs in its foothills near Dan (northeast of Nazareth) the Jordan valley extends to the Dead Sea in the south. Thus, as Jesus and Joseph follow the line of the river valley along the arc of their survey, as the Jordan approaches the Dead Sea, father and son discern...far beyond, the rocky hills of Moab. This interpretation is further supported by the punctuation of the following sentence which does not read Also, to the south and the east,.., suggesting a change in direction from the last reference, but rather, Also to the south and the east,... which implies that the last referenced location (Moab) was in the same direction. Presumably, this change was made because early readers believed that the hills of Moab could not be seen from the top of the hill in Nazareth. It is difficult to confirm the view under current atmospheric conditions, but satellite mapping would seem to indicate that the hills of Moab may indeed have been barely visible at the horizon from the highest point in Nazareth. Given that possibility, it is unwise to assume that a typographical error must have been made here in the original text.
124:1.12 (1368.1) 1955 text: ...on pleasure or business to nearby Cana, Endor, and Nain...
Review: ...on pleasure or business to near-by Cana, Endor, and Nain...
Adopted: All other instances of near-by as an adjective are hyphenated; with one exception (see SRT note for 135:11.2 below) adverbs are open (near by), and the closed form, originally found here, is otherwise entirely absent from the text. Consistent usage would therefore support this change.
125:1.5 (1379.1) 1955 text: Joseph saw how his son had sickened at the sight of the temple rites and wisely led him around to view the “gate beautiful,” the artistic gate made of Corinthian bronze.
Review: Joseph saw how his son had sickened at the sight of the temple rites and wisely led him around to view the “Gate Beautiful,” the artistic gate made of Corinthian bronze.
Adopted: This is clearly the name of the gate; especially since it is in quotations (signifying that it was generally known as.. The more formal name being the Nicanor or Corinthian Gate. Chicago Manual of Style rules here are the same as for any other geographical or architectural reference. The only historical references to this gate by this name are in Acts 3:2 - “And a certain man…whom they laid daily at the door of the temple which is called Beautiful,” v10 - “that it was he which sat for alms at the Beautiful Gate of the temple” Note that the construction of the context matters: “the gate called Beautiful” but “the Beautiful Gate" or “Gate Beautiful.” ...the city called New York; New York City
126:1.2 (1387.2) 1955 text: Not far away he could look upon Tannach...
Review: Not far away he could look upon Taanach...
Adopted: Taanach is correct spelling, the standard transliteration of the name.
126:1.5 (1387.5) 1955 text: some superhuman or miraculous peformance, but always...
Review: some superhuman or miraculous performance, but always...
Adopted: simple typesetting mistake.
128:1.7 (1408.4) 1955 text: offered up prayers and supplications, even with strong feelings and tears, to Him who is able to save from all evil
Review: offered up prayers and supplications, even with strong feelings and tears, to him who is able to save from all evil
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
130:6.3 (1437.3) 1955 text: its abject fear-slave and the bond-servant of depression
Review: its abject fear-slave and the bond servant of depression
Adopted: Bond servant is found in three different forms in the first edition. The only form found in our primary references is the open form (bond servant) in Webster’s. Therefore, the decision was made to standardize on that form.
131:2.10 (1445.4) 1955 text: ‘Come now, let us reason together,’ says the Lord, `Though your sins be as scarlet...
Review: ‘Come now, let us reason together,’ says the Lord. Though your sins be as scarlet...
Rejected: Combined note for all items in this paragraph: This is a rendering of Isaiah 1:18. The original punctuation correctly follows the rules laid out in the Chicago Manual of Style; no changes are required. If the passage had been translated differently, or if it were integrated into the structure of the containing sentence in another manner, other punctuations might be possible; but there is no reason to modify it as found here in the 1955 text.
133:1.5 (1470.1) 1955 text: ...and even if any one should be so unthinking as to do such a thing,...
Review: ...and even if anyone should be so unthinking as to do such a thing,...
also...
1955 text: In the first place very seldom would any normal human being want to attack such a kindly person as you, and even if any one should be so unthinking as to do such a thing,
Review: In the first place very seldom would any normal human being want to attack such a kindly person as you, and even if anyone should be so unthinking as to do such a thing,
Adopted: The usage here falls under the same guidelines outlined in Fowler as applied to some one / someone at 87:3.3 and 100:4.4 above; that is, anyone is correct if anybody could be substituted; any one should be used in all other cases. Therefore, the revised single-word form is correct.
Adopted: The usage here falls under the same guidelines outlined by Fowler as applied to some one / someone at 87:3.3 and 100:4.4; that is, anyone is correct if anybody could be substituted; any one should be used in all other cases. Since anybody could be used here without a change in meaning, the closed form is correct.
133:2.1 (1470.2) 1955 text: The angry man was nonplused by such an approach and, after a moment of embarrassing hesitation, stammered out—"er—why—yes, what do you want with me?”
Review: The angry man was nonplused by such an approach and, after a moment of embarrassing hesitation, stammered out—"Er—why—yes, what do you want with me?”
Rejected: Although er begins the quote, it represents neither a word nor the beginning of a sentence; it is simply the representation of a sound. Exclamations can be capitalized (e.g. “Oh") but to do so in this case seems out of place. This is a good example of a grey area in usage—there cannot be a rule for everything so the author must make the choices which best reflect the intended flow of narrative. As an author, any one of us might choose to punctuate this differently, but as editors, there is no compelling reason to make any change here—the intended meaning is clear and well within the bounds of acceptable punctuation.
133:7.9 (1480.1) 1955 text: functioning of a consciousness sorter and associater
Review: functioning of a consciousness sorter and associator
Adopted: While the meaning of associater is clear and that variant is found in a reference dating to the early 17th century in the OED, it is probably the result of a keystroke error because the common form, associator, is the unanimous usage elsewhere in the text. Unlike other archaic English words occasionally used in The Urantia Book to convey unique meanings (e.g., inconcussible at 118:3.3), the old word-form associater did not convey a meaning distinct from associator and no such differentiation is apparent here. The original spelling may have been caused by a typist’s inadvertent repetition of the -er pattern from sorter, but in any case, the modern and consistently used form has been adopted.
134:3.3 (1485.5) 1955 text: The lectures and discussions in this school of religion began at 10:00 o’clock every morning in the week.
Review: The lectures and discussions in this school of religion began at ten o’clock every morning in the week.
also...
1955 text: The afternoon sessions started at 3:00 o’clock,
Review: The afternoon sessions started at three o’clock,
also...
1955 text: and the evening debates opened at 8:00 o’clock.
Review: and the evening debates opened at eight o’clock.
Adopted: The spelled-out form, ten o’clock, is clearly supported in all editions of the Chicago Manual. The three occurrences of time (10:00, 3:00, 8:00) here are spelled out.
Adopted
Adopted
134:7.5 (1492.5) 1955 text: ...Caesarea Philippi...
Review: ...Caesarea-Philippi...
also...
1955 text: Sychar, Schecham, Samaria, Geba
Review: Sychar, Shechem, Samaria, Geba
Adopted: Main Reference Caesarea-Philippi: Of the 28 occurrences of the name of this town (plus the four instances found in frontmatter files), only two are found in the un-hyphenated form in the 1955 text, and both of those are on the same page, here and at 134:8.1. The hyphenated form is found in six different papers, one of which is named “At Caesarea-Philippi.” The statistical unlikelihood of having, in a carefully edited text, two intended forms of a word and twenty-six incorrect forms, is ridiculously high. The text itself bears strong witness to standardizing on the hyphenated form rather than the open one. Though the open form is in more common use, the hyphenated form has been found in texts pre-dating the UB and is found today in various references. So, the format used in text is neither unique nor incorrect. Given the almost universal consistency of usage in the text, the hyphenated form must have been the author’s choice and has been adopted by the committee. Changes also made at: 134:8.1, 152:0.3, 154:7.3, 155:2.1, 155:2.3, 155:3, 155:3.1, 155:3.2, 155:4.1, Paper 57, 157:0.1, 157:2.2, 157:3.1, 157:3.1, 157:3.7, 157:6.1, 157:6.3, 157:6.3, 157:6.5, 157:6.5, 158:5.5, 158:7.1
Adopted: Shechem is the standard transliteration of the name.
134:8.1 (1492.8) 1955 text: Caesarea Philippi See SRT Main Reference note for 134:7.5 above.
134:8.9 (1494.2) 1955 text: ...the so-called “great temptation" of Jesus took place some time before his baptism...
Review: ...the so-called “great temptation" of Jesus took place sometime before his baptism...
Adopted: Closed form sometime. See SRT note for 60:3.20 above.
135:8.1 (1503.4) 1955 text: ...brought back to Jesus fresh, first-hand reports...
Review: ...brought back to Jesus fresh, firsthand reports...
Adopted: Of the five occurrences of firsthand / first-hand, only this one is hyphenated; no differentiation in usage exists. Therefore standardization of the text was the choice of the committee.
135:11.2 (1507.1) 1955 text: ...friend of the bridegroom who stands near-by and hears him rejoices...
Review: ...friend of the bridegroom who stands near by and hears him rejoices...
Adopted: All other instances of near by as an adverb are open; with one exception, at 124:1.12, adjectives are hyphenated. Consistent usage would therefore support this change to the open form.
136:3.5 (1513.2) 1955 text: The sovereignty of Michael No. 611,121 over his universe...
Review: The sovereignty of Michael number 611,121 over his universe...
Adopted: See SRT note for 24:1.11 above.
136:8.3 (1520.4) 1955 text: Throughout all this momentous dialog of Jesus’ communing with himself,
Review: Throughout all this momentous dialogue of Jesus’ communing with himself,
Adopted: Though this is, arguably, a more modern and American English form, it is the only instance of the shorter form. Multiple instances of dialogue are found elsewhere (all in Paper 91) and, as there is no distinction in meaning and both forms are acceptable, the choice was made to standardize on the majority usage: dialogue.
137:2.9 (1527.3) 1955 text: in the form of the ten commandments and other mottoes
Review: in the form of the Ten Commandments and other mottoes
Rejected: See discussion in SRT note for 96:4.4 lower case above.
138:7.4 (1544.3) 1955 text: ...this was their first clearcut and positive intimation...
Review: ...this was their first clear-cut and positive intimation...
Adopted: This word is found eight additional times; all are hyphenated.
139:6.6 (1559.1) 1955 text: Nathaniel would relieve the tension by a bit of philosophy or a flash of humor; good humor, too.
Review: Nathaniel would relieve the tension by a bit of philosophy or a flash of humor, good humor, too.
No action required: Error found in the 15th - 17th printings. Already restored.
139:10.8 (1564.2) 1955 text: They were simple and ignorant, but they were also big-hearted, kind, and generous.
Review: They were simple and ignorant, but they were also bighearted, kind, and generous.
Rejected: The only other occurrence of this word is at 140:8.30, where it is closed. This compound wouldn ‘t be considered common in current usage, and dictionary support can be found for both forms, so it was decided to standardize on the hyphenated version.
139:12.1 (1565.9) 1955 text: Judas’ parents were Sadducees, and when their son...
Review: Judas’s parents were Sadducees, and when their son...
Adopted: The correct form is Judas’s and it is found that way at all other locations except at one other at 177:4.9 in the text.
139:12.12 (1567.5) 1955 text: in these lucid intervals he faintheartedly conceived
Review: in these lucid intervals he faint-heartedly conceived
Rejected: Usage is split between the two forms in the 1955 text. Though Webster’s supports the closed form, the Oxford English Dictionary suggests using the hyphen and it is clear from the history of usage documented there that both forms have been commonly used. Text standardization is appropriate here, and because this adverbial variant would be particulary strange in hyphenated form, it was determined that the closed form would be used.
140:8.30 1583.4) 1955 text: He was liberal, bighearted, learned, and tolerant.
Review: He was liberal, big-hearted, learned, and tolerant.
Adopted: The only other occurrence of this word is at 139:10:8, where it is open. This compound wouldn’t be considered common in current usage, and dictionary support can be found for both forms, so it was decided to standardize on the hyphenated version as the one least likely to cause the reader to stumble.
142:3.21 (1599.13) 1955 text: And then, amidst the thunders and lightnings of Sinai, Moses gave them the new ten commandments, ... And did you never take notice of these commandments...
Review: And then, amidst the thunders and lightnings of Sinai, Moses gave them the new Ten Commandments, ... And did you never take notice of these commandments...
Rejected: See discussion in SRT note for 96:4.4 lower case, above.
142:8.4 (1606.1) 1955 text: The Sabbath week ends they usually spent with Lazarus
Review: The Sabbath weekends they usually spent with Lazarus
Adopted: The two-word form is supported by Webster’s; the hyphenated form week-end by the OED, while the closed form is not found in any of the contemporary sources. However, the closed form has become the standard usage since that time, as has the related weekday, therefore the closed form has been adopted for both.
143:5.3 (1613.1) 1955 text: Give me this water that I thirst not neither come all the way hither to draw.
Review: Give me this water that I thirst not, neither come all the way hither to draw.
Adopted: The comma properly separates the phrases, making this sentence much easier to read.
143:6.1 (1615.2) 1955 text: My meat is to do the will of Him who sent me and to accomplish His work.
Review: My meat is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work.
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
144:3.6 (1620.1) 1955 text: And forgive us every one our debts As we also have forgiven our debtors.
Review: And forgive us, every one, our debts As we also have forgiven our debtors.
Rejected: Is it now an obsolete and unintelligible construction? The two questions we must always ask are: Was it correct (good English) when it was written? If so, has it become so obsolete as to be unreadable by most proficient readers of English?
146:4.1 (1643.2) 1955 text: ...teach and preach at the week-day evening assemblies...
Review: ...teach and preach at the weekday evening assemblies...
Adopted: The closed form weekday, unlike week-end/week end, is the one found in both Webster’s and OED; further, as noted for 142:8.4 above, it was decided that weekday and weekend should have the same format (as they do in modern usage).
147:4.2 (1650.3) 1955 text: ...for the encouragement of evil doing.
Review: ...for the encouragement of evil-doing.
Adopted: While the earliest occurrences (14th - 16th centuries) of evil doer & evil doing are open, there has been a clear preference for the hyphenated form since the 17th century and it is the form approved by both the OED and Webster’s. The closed form, found at three locations in the 1955 text 159:3.9, 188:4.3, 188:4.5 is, as far as we can tell, unsupported by any contemporary source. [cf evil-intending in the preceding paragraph which is essentially a coined concept and its form illustrates general CMOS principle of hyphenating adjectival phrases prior to a noun.
147:5.1 (1651.5) 1955 text: He was a half-hearted believer, and notwithstanding...
Review: He was a halfhearted believer, and notwithstanding...
Adopted: The closed form is the unanimous usage elsewhere in the text, so text standardization is in order.
149:4.1 (1673.1) 1955 text: ...a question about anger, and the Master among other things said, in reply:
Review: ...a question about anger, and the Master, among other things, said in reply:
Adopted: See SRT note for 149:7.1 below. This sentence required two edits to make it flow correctly: at this location a comma was inserted after the Master and per the following item, a pre-existing comma that originally followed said was moved in front of it—to follow things
149:6.12 (1677.1) 1955 text: Of all the sorrows of a trusting man, none are so terrible as to be `wounded in the house of a trusted friend.’"
Review: Of all the sorrows of a trusting man, none is so terrible as to be `wounded in the house of a trusted friend.’"
Rejected: As at 55:12.5, the original is correct; none commonly takes a plural verb.
149:7.1 (1677.2) 1955 text: ...and return to Bethsaida some time on Thursday, December 30.
Review: ...and return to Bethsaida sometime on Thursday, December 30.
Adopted: See SRT note for 60:3.20 above. The reference is to an indefinite point in time rather than an indefinite period of time; therefore sometime is correct.
150:4.2 1955 text: And I say to you, my friends and disciples, be not afraid of those who can kill the body, but who are not able to destroy the soul; rather put your trust in Him who is able to sustain the body and save the soul.
Review: And I say to you, my friends and disciples, be not afraid of those who can kill the body, but who are not able to destroy the soul; rather put your trust in him who is able to sustain the body and save the soul.
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
151:6.2 (1695.5) 1955 text: with fetters and chains and confined in one of the grottos
Review: with fetters and chains and confined in one of the grottoes
Adopted: Though both forms are correct, this word is found elsewhere in the text as grottoes. Therefore, the text was standardized on that form.
152:0.3 (1698.3) 1955 text: Caesarea Philippi See SRT note main reference for 134:7.5 above.
152:3.2 (1702.3) 1955 text: Caesarea Philippi
also...
1955 text: ...but you are short-sighted and material-minded...
Review: ...but you are shortsighted and material-minded...
See SRT main reference for 134:7.5 above.
Adopted: The closed form is the unanimous usage elsewhere, so the committee decided to standardize on that form.
153:1.7 (1709.1) 1955 text: Jairus’ only reply to all this pleading was...
Review: Jairus’s only reply to all this pleading was...
Adopted: The corrected form is supported by usage elsewhere at 152:1.1 and 152:1.3. The CMOS recommendations have been evolving over time, with the 9th - 11th editions favoring the original version here, but the (12th) and 13th, supporting the revision. This evolution is recognized by the other contemporary sources, with Fowler (1926) noting that the form s’ is still retained “in poetic or reverential contexts... But elsewhere we now add the s..." Strunk (1918) however, in that author’s famously opinionated way, has as its very first rule of usage: “Form the possessive singular of nouns by adding ’s. Follow this rule whatever the final consonant... Exceptions are the possessive of ancient proper names in -es and -is and the possessive Jesus’...” Usage in the 1955 text follows, with only this exception, the more modern practices supported by Fowler and Strunk. (An important supporting example being Lazarus’s, which would be found without its ’s under the older rules.)
153:3.5 (1712.5) 1955 text: He said: “But hearken to me all of you.
Review: He said: “But hearken to me, all of you.
Adopted: The comma properly separates the phrases, making this sentence much easier to read.
154:0.2 (1717.2) 1955 text: He knew of many cases of sickness which had been apparently healed by Jesus, and he regarded him as either a prophet or a relatively harmless religious fanatic.
Review: He knew of many cases of sickness which had been apparently healed by Jesus and he regarded his as either a prophet or a relatively harmless religious fanatic.
No action required: Text error found in the 15th -19th printings. Previously corrected.
154:7.3 (1723.6) 1955 text: Caesarea Philippi See SRT main reference for 134:7.5 above.
155:2.1 (1726.4) 1955 text: Caesarea Philippi See SRT main reference for 134:7.5 above. Other references in Paper 155: 155:2.3, 155:3, 155:3.1, 155:3.2, 155:4.1
Paper 157 (1743.1) 1955 text: Caesarea Philippi See SRT main reference for 134:7.5 above. Other references in Paper 157: 57:0.1, 157:2.2, 157:3.1, 157:3.1, 157:3.7, 157:6.1, 157:6.3, 157:6.3, 157:6.5, 157:6.5
157:1.3 (1744.1) 1955 text: The collector accepted the tax, foregoing the penalty for tardy payment
Review: The collector accepted the tax, forgoing the penalty for tardy payment
Adopted: Forgoing. See SRT note for 89:3.1 above.
158:4.6 (1756.3) 1955 text: Come out of him you unclean spirit;
Review: Come out of him, you unclean spirit;
Adopted: The comma properly separates the phrases, making this sentence easier to read.
158:5.5 (1758.1) 1955 text: Caesarea Philippi See SRT main reference for 134:7.5 above. Other reference in Paper 158: 158:7.1
158:7.1 (1759.3) 1955 text: The apostles had slept very little that night; so they were up early and ready to go.
Review: The apostles had slept very little that night, so they were up early and ready to go.
Adopted: The stronger separation created by the semi-colon is not incorrect, but a comma appears to be more appropriate.
159:1.3 (1762.5) 1955 text: And so, in all these matters connected with the discipline of the brotherhood, whatsoever you shall decree on earth, shall be recognized in heaven.
Review: And so, in all these matters connected with the discipline of the brotherhood, whatsoever you shall decree on earth shall be recognized in heaven.
Rejected: The original punctuation, with the comma after earth, is reasonable and does not cause confusion
159:3.9 (1766.5) 1955 text: ...there is deliberate evildoing and sinful rebellion...
Review: ...there is deliberate evil-doing and sinful rebellion...
Adopted: See SRT note for 147:4.2 above.
160:3.2 (1777.3) 1955 text: ...they are at once restful and time-saving.
Review: ...they are at once restful and timesaving.
Adopted: Though the original is clear, the closed form is the common one and was the approved form in Webster’s 1934.
161:2.9 (1786.4) 1955 text: He says that any one who has seen him has seen the Father.
Review: He says that anyone who has seen him has seen the Father.
Adopted: See SRT note for 133:1.5 above.
162:2.1 (1790.4) 1955 text: He who speaks for himself seeks his own glory, but when I declare the words of the Father, I thereby seek the glory of him who sent me.
Review: He who speaks for himself seeks his own glory, but when I declare the words of the Father, I thereby seek the glory of Him who sent me.
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
162:2.3 (1791.1) 1955 text: By refusing to hear me, you are refusing to receive Him who sends me.
Review: By refusing to hear me, you are refusing to receive him who sends me.
also...
1955 text: You, if you will receive this gospel, shall come to know Him who sent me.
Review: You, if you will receive this gospel, shall come to know him who sent me.
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
162:2.4 (1791.2) 1955 text: ...we wonder if the deliverer, when he does come, will really do anything more wonderful than this Jesus of Nazareth has already done?
Review: ...we wonder if the deliverer, when he does come, will really do anything more wonderful than this Jesus of Nazareth has already done.
Adopted: This is an indirect question contained within a declarative sentence, so the period rather than the question mark is the correct closing punctuation mark.
162:2.7 (1792.1) 1955 text: In just a short time I go to Him who sent me into this world.
Review: In just a short time I go to him who sent me into this world.
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
162:4.3 (1794.2) 1955 text: And then the faithful marched on toward the beautiful gate,
Review: And then the faithful marched on toward the Beautiful Gate,
Adopted: If we thought that the author was just describing the gate, lowercase would be fine, but this gate was known as the Beautiful Gate; therefore capitalization is appropriate.
162:5.2 (1795.1) 1955 text: You only judge by the appearances of the flesh;
Review: You judge only by the appearances of the flesh;
Rejected: While the modified construction may represent adverbial placement “by the rules,” the original is perfectly intelligible and conforms with ordinary usage. Regarding the placement of only, Fowler’s A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926), among other examples, cites the common, “He only died a week ago,” in which, technically (as in the subject phrase), the author ought to have located only after the verb: “He died only a week ago.” Fowler, however, rejects the absolutism of “orthodoxy” and concludes: “The advice offered is this: there is an orthodox position for the adverb, easily determined in case of need; to choose another position that may spoil or obscure the meaning is bad; but a change of position that has no such effect except technically is both justified by historical and colloquial usage and often demanded by rhetorical needs.”
162:7.2 (1796.4) 1955 text: who commits sin is the bond-servant of sin. [line break at hyphen]
Review: who commits sin is the bond servant of sin. [identical line break w/ no hyphen]
Adopted: Bond servant. See SRT note for 130:6.3 above.
163:6.2 (1807.1) 1955 text: I rejoice with you that you have power with men, but be not lifted up because of this experience but the rather rejoice that your names are written on the rolls of heaven, and that you are thus to go forward in an endless career of spiritual conquest.
Review: I rejoice with you that you have power with men, but be not lifted up because of this experience but rather rejoice that your names are written on the rolls of heaven, and that you are thus to go forward in an endless career of spiritual conquest.
Rejected: See Oxford English Dictionary and Websters definitions in cols Y & Z. rather by itself simply means instead or perhaps indicating a preference for what follows, as in “it would be better...” Whereas “the rather” means, roughly, “all the more” or “the more”, or “especially”. So, to paraphrase, the original reads ...especially rejoice that your names are written..." or ...rejoice all the more that your names... while the proposed, more familiar, alternate simply says “...instead rejoice that your names...” or “...it would be better to rejoice that your names...” So even though definitely archaic, even obsolete in Webster’s view, it says exactly what is meant; the more common suggested alternate weakens the sentence significantly.
164:5.6 (1816.3) 1955 text: With the two apostles and Josiah the Master went back to Pella.
Review: With the two apostles and Josiah, the Master went back to Pella.
Rejected: A comma could assist the reader in phrasing the sentence, but it is not essential.
165:0.2 (1817.2) 1955 text: Throughout this tour of Perea the women’s corps, now numbering sixty-two, took over most of the work of ministration to the sick.
Review: Throughout this tour of Perea, the women’s corps, now numbering sixty-two, took over most of the work of ministration to the sick.
Rejected: A comma here, though appropriate in some settings, would confuse the structure of the sentence and break up a relatively short sentence into four parts. It is more important to set off the parenthetical phrase, as the original does, than to separate the introductory adverbial phrase.
165:0.3 (1817.3) 1955 text: ...from these regions during the times of Judas Maccabeus.
Review: ...from these regions during the times of Judas Maccabee.
Adopted: Although Maccabeus is a more accurate transliteration of the Greek, Maccabee is very common in English works and is used in all other occurrences of the word in the Urantia papers. Therefore, the committee decided to standardize on Maccabee.
165:3.3 (1820.2) 1955 text: I admonish you to fear none, in heaven or on earth, but to rejoice in the knowledge of Him who has power to deliver you from all unrighteousness…
Review: I admonish you to fear none, in heaven or on earth, but to rejoice in the knowledge of him who has power to deliver you from all unrighteousness…
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
165:4.8 (1822.3) 1955 text: ‘With their mouths they make a show of love, but their hearts are set upon their own selfish gain’.”
Review: ‘With their mouths they make a show of love, but their hearts are set upon their own selfish gain.’"
Adopted: Quotation marks—single or double—should always enclose a comma or period which follows the last word of the the section set off by the quotation marks. The 9th CMOS (1927) states it rather strongly: “Put the period inside the quotation marks. (This is a rule without exception.)" [Question marks, unless part of the quotation itself, are placed outside of the quotation marks.]
166:3.4 (1829.1) 1955 text: Lord open to us; we would also be great in the kingdom.
Review: Lord, open to us; we would also be great in the kingdom.
Adopted: In the original format, Lord was the last word in the line, making a dropped comma not unlikely. It is possible that the comma after Lord, was simply viewed as unnecessary within such a short phrase, and it should also be noted that while the use of the comma in direct address is now regarded as standard, the Chicago Manual was silent on the matter until its 12th edition (1969). The modern format has been adopted to assist the reader.
166:5.3 (1831.6) 1955 text: And after the death and resurrection of Jesus the Jerusalem church, of which James the Lord’s brother was head, began to have serious difficulties with the Philadelphia congregation of believers.
Review: And after the death and resurrection of Jesus, the Jerusalem church, of which James the Lord’s brother was head, began to have serious difficulties with the Philadelphia congregation of believers.
Rejected: A comma here, though appropriate in some settings, would confuse the structure of the sentence and break up a relatively short sentence into four parts. It is more important to set off the parenthetical phrase, as the original does, than to separate the introductory adverbial phrase.
167:1.5 (1834.3) 1955 text: he may say to you: ‘My friend, why sit in the seat of the least? come up higher’; and thus will such a one have glory in the presence of his fellow guests.
Review: he may say to you: ‘My friend, why sit in the seat of the least? come up higher;’ and thus will such a one have glory in the presence of his fellow guests.
Rejected: According to all editions of the Chicago Manual of Style (SS 182 and 186 of the 1927 ed., for instance), commas and periods always precede the closing quotation mark but semicolons and colons always follow them—whether single or double quotes are involved.
167:2.2 (1835.2) 1955 text: I have just bought a farm, and I must needs to go prove it;
Review: I have just bought a farm, and I must needs go to prove it;
Adopted: The original to go is a transposition resulting in a grammatically incorrect formulation. Must needs should be paired with a verb form that would be correct if needs had not been added to must; an infinitive is not appropriate.
167:4.3 (1837.2) 1955 text: ...so that on the second, or even the third, day such a one would come forth from the tomb.
Review: ...so that on the second or even the third day, such a one would come forth from the tomb.
Adopted: Arguments can be made for several different ways of punctuating this sentence. The original, with commas following both second and third, though reasonable by the rules, is very difficult to read—almost always causing the reader to stumble. The form adopted here, with only a comma following day, is the most readable punctuation of any known alternative, pacing the reader smoothly through the sentence and conveying its meaning clearly.
167:5.3 (1838.4) 1955 text: ...he had become enamoured of a better-looking woman
Review: ...he had become enamored of a better-looking woman
Adopted: This word is also found at 121:5.6; there, the American spelling, enamored, is used. Both forms are acceptable so in the interests of text standardization the American form was adopted.
168:0.2 (1842.2) 1955 text: and Mary sent word to Jesus concerning Lazarus’s illness,
Review: and Mary sent word to Jesus concerning Lazarus’ illness
No action required: See SRT note minor error main entry for 12:4.16 above. However, this one has been restored only to revert to the erroneous form twice, being the only text error which has never been fixed permanently. [Of the ten instances of Lazarus’s, this is the only one that has ever appeared without the final s.] See also note at 153:1.7 for general possessive formation guidelines.
168:3.7 (1847.7) 1955 text: ...Bethpage...
Review: ...Bethphage...
Rejected: Main Reference for Bethpage: The 1955 text uses Bethpage in all thirteen occurrences of this word. In the 4th printing, the original was changed to Bethphage here, and at ten other locations; the remaining two were changed in the 9th printing. These changes were presumably made because Bethphage is the spelling found in almost all English Bibles since the Geneva Bible of 1560. While the apparent misspelling in The Urantia Book is not theologically or historically significant, it seems unlikely that so many identical typographical errors could have occurred, so the spelling Bethpage must have been used in the original manuscript. The committee made its decision to retain the original form based on three factors: 1) It is the only form found in the text of the UB itself; 2) The form is a reasonably accurate transliteration of the sound of the original; and 3) Though the form found in the text is uncommon, it is not unique—the spelling having been found in numerous texts pre-dating The Urantia Book and in various references down to the present day including a number on the Web. Changes also made at: 172:0.2, 172:1.2, 172:3.6, 172:3.6, 172:3.6, 172:4.3, 183:4.3, 189:4.1, 190:2.5, 191:0.1,, 191:0.13, 191:0.13
168:5.1 (1849.5) 1955 text: ...until the day of the crucifixion of Jesus, when he received warning that the Sanhedrin had decreed his death.
Review: ...until the days of the crucifixion of Jesus, when he received warning that the Sanhedrin had decreed his death.
Adopted: The change from day to days here is required because the former is inconsistent with the ensuing narrative at 174:0.1175:3.1, and 177:5.3 which would place the time of Lazarus’s flight between Tuesday at midnight (when his death was decreed by the Sanhedrin) and Wednesday evening (when “certain ones" at the camp “knew that Lazarus had taken hasty flight from Bethany")—two days before the crucifixion of Jesus. Because of the near impossibility of a typographical error leading from week in the manuscript to the day found in the 1955 text, the committee rejected the week resolution (found in numerous printings) and adopted days. If the original manuscript read days, the loss of only a single character in typesetting would create the problematic day. This is a very common type of error and well within the realm of possibility. Though days is a new resolution to this problem and therefore unfamiliar to readers—perhaps some will see it as a “stretch"—it bears repeating (as with West/west at 79:5.6 above that if the 1955 text had originally read days, there would have been no contradiction in the text and the issue would never have been raised in the first place.
169:3.2 (1854.6) 1955 text: And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, who laid at this rich man’s gate,...
Review: And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, who was laid at this rich man’s gate,...
Adopted: This sentence, as structured, does require lay rather than laid, the former being the past tense of the intransitive verb to lie; the latter being the past of the transitive verb to lay. However, it is the committee’s opinion that the error here is not poor grammar by the author, but a lost word in transcription. The authors of Part IV of The Urantia Book generally follow the text of the American Standard Version (ASV) of 1901, with certain modernizations and corrections as needed. The ASV text of Luke 16:19-21 is as follows: “Now there was a certain rich man, and he was clothed in purple and fine linen, faring sumptuously every day: and a certain beggar named Lazarus was laid at his gate, full of sores, and desiring to be fed with the crumbs that fell from the rich man’s table; yea, even the dogs came and licked his sores.” In view of the apparent reliance of The Urantia Book on the ASV at this point, the committee decided to reject lay and reconstruct the verb as was laid. Additional contextual support for this argument is based on the beggar’s inability to fend for himself. If “even the dogs came and licked his sores," he surely would have been carried to the rich man’s gate by others, who would then have laid him there.
170:2.1 (1859.11) 1955 text: would liberate man from the age-long bondage of animal fear
Review: would liberate man from the agelong bondage of animal fear
Rejected: The only other instance of this word is broken at the end of a line and so could support either form. (See 38:9.13) The committee decided to standardize both instances on the hyphenated form.
172:0.2 (1878.2) 1955 text: ...Bethpage...
Review: ...Bethphage...
Rejected: See SRT note Main Reference for Bethpage for 168:3.7/a> above. Other references in Paper 172 are found at: 172:1.2, 172:3.6, 172:4.3
172:3.6 (1881.4) 1955 text: If any one asks you why you do this, merely say, ‘The master has need of him.’"
Review: If anyone asks you why you do this, merely say, ‘The master has need of him.’"
Adopted: See SRT note for 133:1.5 above. Also here, as this is at EOL, a missing hyphen in the first printing could have given rise to the two-word form.
172:5.2 (1884.1) 1955 text: Andrew was busy watching some of his associates whom he feared might be led away by their emotions...
Review: Andrew was busy watching some of his associates who he feared might be led away by their emotions...
also...
1955 text: He was concerned about the attitude of some of the twelve whom he knew were armed with swords...
Review: He was concerned about the attitude of some of the twelve who he knew were armed with swords...
Adopted: The pronoun here is the subject of the verb phrase might be led away; not the object of feared. To clarify, Andrew feared they might be led away by their emotions; he was not watching his associates, whom he feared.— He did not fear them, but he was afraid they might be led astray.
Adopted: The pronoun is the subject of the verb were armed, not the object of knew nor of were armed; therefore who is the correct form. To illustrate: ...some of the twelve whom he knew Peter had armed...[he knew Peter had armed them] ...some of the twelve who he knew were armed... [he knew they were armed] The sentence might have been written “He was concerned about the attitude of the twelve, some of whom he knew were armed with swords.” In which case, whom would be the object of the prepositional phrase some of whom, while the phrase itself would be the subject of were armed, but it was not.
173:1.3 (1889.1) 1955 text: ...was one-half shekel, a coin about the size of a ten cent piece but twice as thick.
Review: ...was one-half shekel, a coin about the size of a ten-cent piece but twice as thick.
Adopted: [T]en-cent is the standard form and is specified by the CMOS.
175:1.20 (1908.4) 1955 text: Over yonder have you built a monument to the martyred prophets of old, while you plot to destroy Him of whom they spoke.
Review: Over yonder have you built a monument to the martyred prophets of old, while you plot to destroy him of whom they spoke.
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above, but also consider: The existence of a virtually identical, but un-capitalized instance in the following sentence probably provoked the change here, but in that sentence the referent is (grammatically and substantively) clearly identified as the Son of Man, so the preceding pronoun does not require capitalization. Indeed, him in that sentence is, by the sentence structure, immediately defined as ‘the Son of Man.’
176:3.4 (1916.4) 1955 text: And so did all of these servants make gains for their master except he who received but one talent.
Review: And so did all of these servants make gains for their master except him who received but one talent.
Adopted: The pronoun is the object of the preposition except therefore him is correct. See last sentence in subject paragraph for parallel usage where him is object of to also creating a him who phrase.
176:4.1 (1918.4) 1955 text: It is not strange that Michael should be interested in sometime returning to the planet whereon he experienced his seventh and last bestowal, as a mortal of the realm.
Review: It is not strange that Michael should be interested in sometime returning to the planet whereon he experienced his seventh and last bestowal as a mortal of the realm.
Rejected: The comma is required to give the sentence its correct meaning: Urantia was the place of Michael’s seventh and last bestowal, as a mortal of the realm. [the seventh bestowal—the one in which he was a mortal of the realm.]
Note: Urantia was the place of Michael’s seventh and last bestowal as a mortal of the realm. [his seventh mortal bestowal]"
177:3.7 (1924.3) 1955 text: ...why he would be willing to forego the great advantage...
Review: ...why he would be willing to forgo the great advantage...
Adopted: See SRT note for 89:3.1 above.
177:4.1 (1924.5) 1955 text: ...appointed for shortly after 10 o’clock that morning...
Review: ...appointed for shortly after ten o’clock that morning...
Adopted: See SRT note for 134:3.3 above.
177:4.9 (1926.2) 1955 text: Judas’s betrayal of Jesus was the cowardly act
Review: Judas’ betrayal of Jesus was the cowardly act
Rejected: The correct form is Judas’s and it is found that way at all locations in the 1955 text except 139:12.1. It is not known why the correct form was changed in the first place, or why it has been changed and changed back again so many times in recent printings.
177:5.2 (1927.3) 1955 text: ...still others whom you think love the truth will be scattered,...
Review: ...still others who you think love the truth will be scattered,...
Adopted: This is a situation similar to the two found at 172:5.2 above. The pronoun concerned is the subject of love, not the object of think; therefore who is the correct form. To illustrate: ...others whom you think Jesus loved... [you think Jesus loved them ] ...others who you think love the truth... [you think they love the truth].
179:5.9 (1943.2) 1955 text: ...he said to the twelve: “And as often as you do this...
Review: ...he said to the eleven: “And as often as you do this...
also...
1955 text: ...and then, by faith, discern that you shall all some time sup with me...
Review: ...and then, by faith, discern that you shall all sometime sup with me ...
Adopted: There were only eleven apostles still present for the establishment of the remembrance supper because Judas had left earlier; so the twelve of the 1955 text was incorrect, and was changed to apostles to make this sentence consistent with the rest of the narrative. However, if the manuscript had read apostles it could not have become twelve in the course of text preparation, therefore a different solution was required. The committee adopted eleven as the resolution of this problem based on the proposition that the manuscript contained numerals at this point—as written documents commonly do—thus “11.” At some point prior to formatting for printing, the last digit was changed either by accident or through the common typographical error of seeing what you expect to see rather than what is on the page. When the number was formatted for printing, the “12" which was so similar to “11" became twelve which is completely dissimilar to eleven. [Note that there are several other examples of errors in the 1955 text that apparently had a similar origin: see SRT notes for 37:8.3, 41:4.4 and 43:1.6 above; the several time statements that are formatted incorrectly— 134:3.3 and 177:4.1 above also lend weight to the idea that numbers were written as numerals in the manuscript (as is common practice), and were formatted to words later in the process of text preparation.]
Adopted: See SRT note for 60:3.20 above.
180:3.1 (1946.6) 1955 text: Be not downcast even when faint-hearted believers turn against you...
Review: Be not downcast even when fainthearted believers turn against you...
Adopted: See SRT note for 139:12.12 above.
180:3.4 (1947.3) 1955 text: ...stations in the Father’s heaven to which you shall some time ascend.
Review: ...stations in the Father’s heaven to which you shall sometime ascend.
Adopted: See SRT note for 60:3.20 above.
182:2.5 (1966.5) 1955 text: When David brought to the Master one Jacob, once a runner on the overnight messenger service between Jerusalem and Bethsaida, Jesus, addressing him, said: “In all haste, go to Abner at Philadelphia and say:
Review: When David brought to the Master one Jacob, once a runner on the overnight messenger service between Jerusalem and Beth go to Abner at Philadelphia and say:
No action required: Text error found in the second Uversa Press printing; since restored.
183:4.3 (1976.1) 1955 text: ...Bethpage...
Review: ...Bethphage...
Rejected: See SRT note Main Reference for Bethpage for 168:3.7/a> above.
183:4.4 (1976.2) 1955 text: David sent him in charge of a messenger to join his brother,
Review: David sent him in the charge of a messenger to join his brother,
Rejected: See SRT note for 46:5.24 above.
184:3.1 (1982.2) 1955 text: ...on informal charges of law-breaking, blasphemy...
Review: ...on informal charges of lawbreaking, blasphemy...
Adopted: Of the five occurrences of lawbreak[er] [-ing] in the text, three are closed and two are hyphenated. There is no differential in meaning indicated by the two forms, so text standardization could be appropriate.
184:3.15 (1983.7) 1955 text: ...be done with this law-breaker and blasphemer...
Review: ...be done with this lawbreaker and blasphemer...
Adopted: See SRT note for 184:3.1 above.
186:3.2 (2000.5) 1955 text: Philadelphia, Sidon, Schechem, Hebron, Damascus, and Alexandria...
Review: Philadelphia, Sidon, Shechem, Hebron, Damascus, and Alexandria...
Adopted: The standard transliteration is Shechem. [A similar problem occurred at 134:7.5]
186:5.5 (2002.6) 1955 text: ...relations between man and his Maker on this world and on all others...
Review: ...relations between man and his Maker, on this world and on all others...
Adopted: The addition of this comma properly sets off the following parenthetical phrase.
187:6.2 (2011.6) 1955 text: After the death of the Master, John sent the women, in charge of Jude, to the home of Elijah Mark
Review: After the death of the Master, John sent the women, in the charge of Jude, to the home of Elijah Mark
Rejected: See SRT note for 46:5.24 above.
188:4.3 (2016.8) 1955 text: because of the evildoing of his ancestors
Review: because of the evil-doing of his ancestors
Adopted: Evil-doing. See SRT note for 147:4.2 above.
188:4.5 (2016.10) 1955 text: ...the tendency toward evildoing...
Review: ...the tendency toward evil-doing...
Adopted: See SRT note for 147:4.2 above.
189:4.1 (2025.2) 1955 text: ...Bethpage...
Review: ...Bethphage...
Rejected: See SRT note Main Reference for Bethpage for 168:3.7/a> above.
190:2.5 (2032.3) 1955 text: ...Bethpage...
Review: ...Bethphage...
Rejected: See SRT note Main Reference for Bethpage for 168:3.7/a> above.
190:3.1 (2033.1) 1955 text: strengthen those who are fainthearted and fear-ridden
Review: strengthen those who are faint-hearted and fear-ridden
Rejected: See note for 139:12.12 on usage.
190:3.3 (2033.3) 1955 text: It was even suggested that any one claiming to have seen him should be put to death;...
Review: It was even suggested that anyone claiming to have seen him should be put to death;...
Adopted: See SRT note for 133:1.5 above.
191:0.1 (2037.1) 1955 text: ...Bethpage...
Review: ...Bethphage...
Rejected: See SRT note Main Reference for Bethpage for 168:3.7/a> above. Other Paper 191 reference found at 191:0.13.
191:5.3 (2043.1) 1955 text: ...the far-away ascetics teach reverence...
Review: ...the faraway ascetics teach reverence...
Adopted: Except for this single instance, The Urantia Book uses the closed form, so it was decided that standardization on that form would be appropriate.
191:6.1 (2044.2) 1955 text: While the eleven apostles were on the way to Galilee, drawing near their journey’s end, on Tuesday evening, April 18, at about half past eight o’clock, Jesus appeared to Rodan and some eighty other believers, in Alexandria.
Review: While the eleven apostles were on the way to Galilee, drawing near their journey’s end, on Tuesday evening, April 18, at about half past eight o’clock, Jesus appeared to Rodan and some eighty other believers in Alexandria.
Rejected: The original punctuation is correct. The comma after believers appropriately separates the main clause Jesus appeared to Rodan and some eighty other believers... from a supporting adverbial phrase in Alexandria. Without the comma, it is not clear whether in Alexandria describes the location of the eighty believers or the location of Jesus’ appearance. (It is immaterial that both assertions happen to be true.)
192:4.5 (2051.2) 1955 text: This was a sad home-coming for John Mark.
Review: This was a sad homecoming for John Mark.
Rejected: The only other instance of home-coming in the text at 150:7.3 is broken at the hyphen by the end of a line, so it could support either spelling. Only the hyphenated form is found in Webster’s, and the Chicago Manual gives no guidance. The original should therefore be retained.
194:4.4 (2066.4) 1955 text: Being, by the right hand of God, exalted and having received from the Father the promise of the spirit, he has poured forth this which you see and hear.
Review: Being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received from the Father the promise of the spirit, he has poured forth this which you see and hear.
Rejected: Acts 2:32-33. When translated from Greek into English with this word order, the meaning is somewhat difficult to convey correctly, however, the text generally follows the American Standard Version (1901) here, which reads, “Being therefore by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he hath poured forth this, which ye see and hear.” The Urantia Book’s removal of therefore at the beginning causes some structural problems that the commas as originally placed were intended to mitigate, but the passage is still problematic. The suggested changes may improve the situation, but the committee decided that the improvement didn’t warrant adopting the proposed revisions. The Revised Standard Version (1948) has a more helpful word order which is equivalent in meaning to the original UB phraseology: “Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this which you see and hear.”
194:4.6 (2067.1) 1955 text: Jesus filled all their thoughts and determined all their new concept of God and everything else.
Review: Jesus filled all their thoughts and determined all their new concepts of God and everything else.
Adopted: Though one can determine their new concept or determine their new concepts, the inclusion of all here requires the plural concepts. All can be used with singulars, but only when it indicates “the whole of" when referring to ideas which can carry measurements such as “amount, quantity, extent, duration, quality, or degree" (Webster’s). Concept does not convey such a broadly measurable idea. This is illustrated by contrasting its usage with the examples given in Webster’s: “all the wheat; all the year; all this;" nor does it fit the extended range of ideas to which one can apply measures like “greatest possible; complete; perfect;" as in “all happiness; with all speed; in all kindness. Imagine similar phrases with concept such as “in all concept" or “with all concept," which are clearly inappropriate.
195:3.10 (2074.5) 1955 text: Poutaenus taught Clement and then went on to follow Nathaniel...
Review: Pantaenus taught Clement and then went on to follow Nathaniel...
Adopted: Pantaenus is the correct spelling. Dr. Sadler, in a March 17, 1959 letter to the Reverend Benjamin Adams of San Francisco, suggested the possible source of the error: “I think the spelling of the name of the teacher in Alexandria is undoubtedly an error in transcribing the manuscript into typewriting. An “an" was undoubtedly transcribed as an “ou.” I remember when we were sometimes in doubt as to whether a letter was an “n" or a “u" in the manuscript. Of course, we who were preparing this matter, did not know the name of this teacher so could have easily made this mistake.”
195:6.1 (2076.6) 1955 text: The spiritual bank of the kingdom of heaven will be paying out faith, hope, and moral security to all who draw upon it “in His name.”
Review: The spiritual bank of the kingdom of heaven will be paying out faith, hope, and moral security to all who draw upon it “in his name.”
Rejected: See SRT note for 1:5.16 above.
196:3.35 (2097.3) 1955 text: And the spirit of the Father is in his Son’s sons—mortal men.
Review: And the spirit of the Father is in his Sons’ sons—mortal men.
Adopted: Sons’ does appear to be correct in light of the prior sentence which provides the context—"...this life of the Father is in his Sons.”

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