16. Hebrews

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1. Theme. 1:1,2.

2. Argument-Son and Priest. 1:3-10:18.

A. Personality of Son. 1:3-4:13.

B. Work of Personality. 4:14-10:18.

(1) Melchizedek Priest. 4:14-5:10.

(2) Attend on Teaching. 5:11-6:20.

(3) Melchizedek Priesthood. 7:1-28.

(4) Jesus as High Priest. 8:1-10:18.

3. The Application. 10:19-12:29.

A. Access to God. 10:19-31.

B. Confidence. 10:32-39.

C. Faith. 11:1-40.

D. Running the Race. 12:1,2.

E. Discipline. 12:3-11.

F. Warnings. 12:12-29.


1. Hebrews was not attributed to Paul until the end of the second century. In A.D. 225 Origen thought that Paul was the author of the material, but that someone else put it in written form. He said: "The thoughts are those of the apostle, but the diction and phraseology are those of someone who remembered the apostolic teachings."

2. Other suggested authors: Barnabas, Timothy, Aquila, Priscilla, Luke, Clement, and Apollos.

3. Some have thought Paul's friend Silvanus (Silas) wrote Hebrews.

4. There is some literary resemblance to 1 Peter, which Silvanus might also have written.

5. The author was familiar with the teachings of Plato, Philo, and Paul.

6. The last chapter is like Paul's writings.

7. The book has been dated from A.D. 85 to 110.

8. 1 Clement, written A.D. 96, quotes from Hebrews. Some think Hebrews was written in the late seventies.

9. In all probability the book was written in Italy.

10. Several of Paul's doctrines, like "justification by faith," are not found

11. Paul does not present Christ as priest in any of his writings, but Hebrews does.

12. Hebrews is one of the most erudite books of the Bible.

13. We are forced to conclude that Hebrews was rewritten one or more times. It may have originated as a Pauline letter to one of the churches and then, like Ephesians, was subjected to much editorial rewriting.

14. The Council of Trent (1546) included Hebrews among the letters of Paul.

15. The Urantia Book speaks of Paul as author- (539.5) 47:10.3. On p. 1024 Paul is referred to as "one of the authors." Quotations from Hebrews are ascribed to Paul on (539.5) 47:10.3 and (542.4) 48:1.7 in the Urantia Book.


1. Hebrews begins like a treatise and ends like a letter.

2. This so-called epistle to the Hebrews is the least Hebrew of all New Testament writings.

3. Hebrews is in many ways the most "modern" of all New Testament writings.

4. An outstanding feature is the discussion of Melchizedek, original with this author. Nowhere else in all the New Testament do we find such allusions.

5. Jesus as "the pioneer and perfecter of our faith" is the theme of Hebrews.

6. The purpose was to prevent Jewish Christians from backsliding-so they would not "fall away from the living God." 3:12.


1. Christ is the final and complete revelation of God.

2. The dominant idea: "We have such a high priest at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven."

3. And all this is "the new and living way."

4. The idea of making Christ a priest is unique-the only book in the New Testament to do so. This priesthood concept presents a new and unique philosophy of Christology.

5. The Melchizedek idea is the essence of the author's philosophy, faith has to do with "things hoped for" and "things not seen."

6. Philo equates Melchizedek with the Logos; Hebrews compares it to the eternal mediatorship of the glorified Christ.

7. There is close kinship to the thinking of Philo of Alexandria.

8. Christian convictions are presented in an atmosphere of Platonic idealism.

9. Hebrews utterly ignores the whole idea of the Messiah.

10. Hebrews is like Paul's writing in that it avoids use of the title "Son of Man" for Christ.

11. For some reason but little is said about the resurrection and the sacraments.

12. Hebrews is sound doctrine in the equal recognition of the humanity and divinity of Jesus.

13. "He was tempted in all points" as we are-yet without sin.

14. But we miss Paul's concept of the "radical change" by the Spirit-conversion.


1. Attributes of the Son. "He reflects the glory of God and bears the very stamp of his nature, upholding the universe by his word of power." 1:3.

2. Ministering spirits. "Are they not all ministering spirits sent forth to serve, for the sake of those who are to obtain salvation?" 1:14.

3. Man's status. "'What is man that thou art mindful of him, or the Son of man, that thou hearest for him? Thou didst make him for a little while lower than the angels, thou has crowned him with glory and honor.'" 2:6,7.

4. Christ's humanity. "Therefore he had to be made like his brethren in every respect, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God." 2:17.

5. Understanding high priest. "For we have not a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who in every respect has been tempted as we are, yet without sinning." 4:15.

6. Melchizedek priesthood. "As he says in another place, 'Thou art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchizedek.'" 5:6.

7. Learning obedience. "Although he was a Son, he learned obedience through what he suffered." 5:8.

8. High priest ministry. "A hope that enters into the inner shrine

behind the curtain, where Jesus has gone as a forerunner on our behalf, having become a high priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek." 6:19,20.

9. Melchizedek's relationship. "He is without father or mother or genealogy, and has neither beginning of days nor end of life, but resembling the Son of God he continues a priest for ever." 7:3.

10. The new covenant. "This is the covenant that I will make...I will put my laws into their minds, and write them on their hearts.'" 8:10.

11. Missions of Christ. "So Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him." 9:28.

12. Provoking virtue. "Let us consider how to stir up one another to love and good works." 10:24.

13. Presumptuous sin. "For if we sin deliberately after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins." 10:26.

14. Judgment. "It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God." 10:31.

15. What is faith? "Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen." 11:1.

16. The heavenly city. "For he looked forward to the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God." 11:10.

17. The saving race. "Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and the sin which clings so closely, and let us run with perseverance the race that is set before us, looking to Jesus the pioneer and perfecter of our faith." 12:1,2.

18. The goal of living. "Strive for peace with all men, and for the holiness without which no one will see the Lord." 12:14.

19. Hospitality. "Let brotherly love continue. Do not neglect to show hospitality to strangers, for thereby some have entertained angels unawares." 13:1,2.

20. Avoid love of money. "Keep your life free from love of money, and be content with what you have." 13:5.

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